Deletion/insertion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and white matter hyperintensities in dementia: A pilot study.J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54(9):1395-400JA
To examine the association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphism and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in patients with dementia.
Observational pilot study with adjustment for potential confounders using analysis of covariance.
Secondary care old-age psychiatry services in greater Manchester, United Kingdom.
Ninety-seven patients with dementia: 49 with Alzheimer's disease (AD, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria) and 48 with vascular dementia (VaD, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria).
The ACE D/I polymorphism, WMHs (deep WMHs (DWMHs) and periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs)) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and potential cardiovascular confounders.
The D/D polymorphism of the ACE genotype was associated with severity of DWMH (P = .005) but not PVH (P = .34), corrected for age, cardiovascular risk factors, and type of dementia. Post hoc analyses were limited by statistical power but suggested an interaction with the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele.
The results support previous observations that genetic factors influence the development of WMHs in dementia. The involvement of the ACE D/I polymorphism in the pathogenesis of DWMHs in dementia (AD and VaD), by a mechanism that is independent of its association with cardiovascular risk factors, should be confirmed in a large population-based sample.