Cadmium induced mitochondrial injury and apoptosis in vero cells: protective effect of diallyl tetrasufide from garlic.Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007; 39(1):161-70.IJ
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury has been implicated in cadmium-induced apoptosis. In this study, we examined the protective effect of diallyl tetrasulfide from garlic on cadmium induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vero cells. Exposure of vero cells to cadmium (10 microM) for 18 h showed the apoptotic events such as loss of cell viability, alterations in nuclear morphology and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential with significantly increased levels of reactive oxygen species (super oxide anion and hydrogen peroxide). Treatment of vero cells with cadmium (10 microM) and diallyl tetrasulfide (5-50 microg/ml) showed that diallyl tetrasulfide attenuated the cadmium-induced suppression of cell viability in a dose dependent manner and highly significant effect was observed at 40 microg/ml. The nuclei morphological analysis with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining confirmed that diallyl tetrasulfide at 40 microg/ml prevented the Cd (10 microM) induced apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis with 2',7'-dichlorofluorencein diacetate showed that the inhibitory effect of diallyl tetrasulfide (10-40 microg/ml) on reactive oxygen species generation parallel with its effect on cell viability. In addition, diallyl tetrasulfide (40 microg/ml) remarkably reduced the cadmium-induced accumulation of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide with in cells. Further, diallyl tetrasulfide significantly protected the cadmium-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, an indicator of mitochondrial function. Our study suggest that diallyl tetrasulfide affect the reactive oxygen species generation induced by cadmium, and possesses a novel protective effect on the cytolethality associated with mitochondrial injury, which contributes to the antiapoptotic effect of diallyl tetrasulfide against cadmium.