Influence of the amount of dietary fiber on the available energy from hindgut fermentation in growing pigs: use of cannulated pigs and in vitro fermentation.J Anim Sci. 2006 Oct; 84(10):2766-78.JA
Available energy from hindgut fermentation to pigs fed various amounts of dietary fiber was investigated using an in vivo-in vitro methodology. Six growing pigs fitted with a simple T-shaped cannula at the terminal ileum, and following a Latin-square design, were fed 3 diets differing in the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP): a low fiber diet (LFD, 77 g/kg of DM), a standard fiber diet (SFD, 160 g/kg of DM), and a high fiber diet (HFD, 240 g/kg of DM). After adaptation to the diet for 10 d, samples from feces and ileum were collected and analyzed for DM, energy, NSP, and chromic oxide; feces were also analyzed for short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Freeze-dried ileal samples (10 g/L) were fermented in vitro in a fecal slurry consisting of an anaerobic mineral salt medium and feces (50 g/L) from cannulated pigs fed the same diets. Available energy was calculated from the amount of SCFA produced in vitro after 48 h of incubation. Nonstarch polysaccharide content in the fermented material was measured to assess the in vitro degradation of this fraction. Increasing dietary NSP from 77 to 240 g/kg of feed DM increased (P < 0.001) ileal flow from 199 to 468 g/kg of feed, leading to a reduction in the energy digested at the terminal ileum, from 15 to 11 MJ/kg of feed DM and an increment in energy digested in the hindgut, from 1.6 to 3.5 MJ/kg of feed DM. Total in vitro production of SCFA/kg of feed DM was dependent on the amount of ileal substrate available for fermentation; that is, increased concentrations of NSP in the diet led to an increase in the SCFA that may be available to the animal (P < 0.001). The molar ratio of SCFA produced in vitro was affected by diet; the high fiber diet showed the greatest (P = 0.004) proportion of acetic acid, and the low fiber diet showed a tendency (P = 0.081) to an increased butyric acid proportion compared with the other 2 diets. Net disappearance of NSP during fermentation in vivo and in vitro were compared and showed a close relationship (P < 0.001, slope = 0.906, r = 0.960). In our experimental conditions, available energy as SCFA to the animal from hindgut fermentation increased with the concentration of dietary NSP (P < 0.001) and provided between 7.1 and 17.6% of the total available energy.