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CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol. 2006 Nov; 142(3):866-77.PP

Abstract

A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against uncontrolled water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of CER4, a wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4 mutants exhibit major decreases in stem primary alcohols and wax esters, and slightly elevated levels of aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones. This phenotype suggested that CER4 encoded an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). We identified eight FAR-like genes in Arabidopsis that are highly related to an alcohol-forming FAR expressed in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Molecular characterization of CER4 alleles and genomic complementation revealed that one of these eight genes, At4g33790, encoded the FAR required for cuticular wax production. Expression of CER4 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) resulted in the accumulation of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged CER4 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast cells by confocal microscopy. Analysis of gene expression by reverse transcription-PCR indicated that CER4 was expressed in leaves, stems, flowers, siliques, and roots. Expression of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the CER4 promoter in transgenic plants was detected in epidermal cells of leaves and stems, consistent with a dedicated role for CER4 in cuticular wax biosynthesis. CER4 was also expressed in all cell types in the elongation zone of young roots. These data indicate that CER4 is an alcohol-forming FAR that has specificity for very-long-chain fatty acids and is responsible for the synthesis of primary alcohols in the epidermal cells of aerial tissues and in roots.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Botany , University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16980563

Citation

Rowland, Owen, et al. "CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-forming Fatty Acyl-coenzyme a Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiology, vol. 142, no. 3, 2006, pp. 866-77.
Rowland O, Zheng H, Hepworth SR, et al. CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;142(3):866-77.
Rowland, O., Zheng, H., Hepworth, S. R., Lam, P., Jetter, R., & Kunst, L. (2006). CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 142(3), 866-77.
Rowland O, et al. CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-forming Fatty Acyl-coenzyme a Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;142(3):866-77. PubMed PMID: 16980563.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis. AU - Rowland,Owen, AU - Zheng,Huanquan, AU - Hepworth,Shelley R, AU - Lam,Patricia, AU - Jetter,Reinhard, AU - Kunst,Ljerka, Y1 - 2006/09/15/ PY - 2006/9/19/pubmed PY - 2007/1/27/medline PY - 2006/9/19/entrez SP - 866 EP - 77 JF - Plant physiology JO - Plant Physiol VL - 142 IS - 3 N2 - A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against uncontrolled water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of CER4, a wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4 mutants exhibit major decreases in stem primary alcohols and wax esters, and slightly elevated levels of aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones. This phenotype suggested that CER4 encoded an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). We identified eight FAR-like genes in Arabidopsis that are highly related to an alcohol-forming FAR expressed in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Molecular characterization of CER4 alleles and genomic complementation revealed that one of these eight genes, At4g33790, encoded the FAR required for cuticular wax production. Expression of CER4 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) resulted in the accumulation of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged CER4 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast cells by confocal microscopy. Analysis of gene expression by reverse transcription-PCR indicated that CER4 was expressed in leaves, stems, flowers, siliques, and roots. Expression of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the CER4 promoter in transgenic plants was detected in epidermal cells of leaves and stems, consistent with a dedicated role for CER4 in cuticular wax biosynthesis. CER4 was also expressed in all cell types in the elongation zone of young roots. These data indicate that CER4 is an alcohol-forming FAR that has specificity for very-long-chain fatty acids and is responsible for the synthesis of primary alcohols in the epidermal cells of aerial tissues and in roots. SN - 0032-0889 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16980563/CER4_encodes_an_alcohol_forming_fatty_acyl_coenzyme_A_reductase_involved_in_cuticular_wax_production_in_Arabidopsis_ L2 - http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16980563 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -