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Risk factors for recurrent melioidosis in northeast Thailand.
Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Oct 15; 43(8):979-86.CI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Recurrent melioidosis occurs in approximately 6% of patients in the first year following the initial presentation. A recent study revealed that 25% of patients with recurrence had reinfection rather than a relapse resulting from a failure to cure. The aim of this study was to reevaluate these 2 patient groups to define their individual risk factors.

METHODS

All adult patients who presented to Sappasithiprasong Hospital (Ubon Ratchathani, in northeast Thailand) with culture-confirmed melioidosis during the period 1986-2004 and who survived to receive oral antimicrobial therapy were observed until July 2005. Clinical factors and antimicrobial treatment of patients with recurrent disease due to relapse or reinfection, as confirmed by bacterial genotyping, were compared using a time-varying Cox proportional hazard model.

RESULTS

Of 889 patients who survived and underwent follow-up, 86 patients (9.7%) presented with relapse, and 30 patients (3.4%) became reinfected. There was no difference in acute outcome between the relapse and reinfection groups. No risk factors for reinfection were identified. Multivariate analyses identified choice and duration of oral antimicrobial therapy as the most important determinants of relapse, followed by positive blood culture result (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.92) and multifocal distribution (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.03-3.67). Patients treated with an appropriate oral antibiotic regimen for 12-16 weeks had a 90% decreased risk of relapse (HR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.44), compared with patients who were treated for < or = 8 weeks. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus doxycycline was an effective oral therapy.

CONCLUSIONS

This study highlights clinical factors associated with an increased likelihood of relapse and provides evidence for optimal oral antimicrobial therapy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. direk@tropmedres.acNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16983608

Citation

Limmathurotsakul, Direk, et al. "Risk Factors for Recurrent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand." Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 43, no. 8, 2006, pp. 979-86.
Limmathurotsakul D, Chaowagul W, Chierakul W, et al. Risk factors for recurrent melioidosis in northeast Thailand. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(8):979-86.
Limmathurotsakul, D., Chaowagul, W., Chierakul, W., Stepniewska, K., Maharjan, B., Wuthiekanun, V., White, N. J., Day, N. P., & Peacock, S. J. (2006). Risk factors for recurrent melioidosis in northeast Thailand. Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 43(8), 979-86.
Limmathurotsakul D, et al. Risk Factors for Recurrent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Oct 15;43(8):979-86. PubMed PMID: 16983608.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Risk factors for recurrent melioidosis in northeast Thailand. AU - Limmathurotsakul,Direk, AU - Chaowagul,Wipada, AU - Chierakul,Wirongrong, AU - Stepniewska,Kasia, AU - Maharjan,Bina, AU - Wuthiekanun,Vanaporn, AU - White,Nicholas J, AU - Day,Nicholas P J, AU - Peacock,Sharon J, Y1 - 2006/09/01/ PY - 2006/03/08/received PY - 2006/07/05/accepted PY - 2006/9/20/pubmed PY - 2007/1/19/medline PY - 2006/9/20/entrez SP - 979 EP - 86 JF - Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America JO - Clin Infect Dis VL - 43 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Recurrent melioidosis occurs in approximately 6% of patients in the first year following the initial presentation. A recent study revealed that 25% of patients with recurrence had reinfection rather than a relapse resulting from a failure to cure. The aim of this study was to reevaluate these 2 patient groups to define their individual risk factors. METHODS: All adult patients who presented to Sappasithiprasong Hospital (Ubon Ratchathani, in northeast Thailand) with culture-confirmed melioidosis during the period 1986-2004 and who survived to receive oral antimicrobial therapy were observed until July 2005. Clinical factors and antimicrobial treatment of patients with recurrent disease due to relapse or reinfection, as confirmed by bacterial genotyping, were compared using a time-varying Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Of 889 patients who survived and underwent follow-up, 86 patients (9.7%) presented with relapse, and 30 patients (3.4%) became reinfected. There was no difference in acute outcome between the relapse and reinfection groups. No risk factors for reinfection were identified. Multivariate analyses identified choice and duration of oral antimicrobial therapy as the most important determinants of relapse, followed by positive blood culture result (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.92) and multifocal distribution (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.03-3.67). Patients treated with an appropriate oral antibiotic regimen for 12-16 weeks had a 90% decreased risk of relapse (HR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.44), compared with patients who were treated for < or = 8 weeks. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus doxycycline was an effective oral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights clinical factors associated with an increased likelihood of relapse and provides evidence for optimal oral antimicrobial therapy. SN - 1537-6591 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16983608/Risk_factors_for_recurrent_melioidosis_in_northeast_Thailand_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-lookup/doi/10.1086/507632 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -