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[Hyperosmolar volume replacement in heart surgery].
Anaesthesist. 1990 Aug; 39(8):412-9.A

Abstract

The ideal solution for use in volume therapy is still a matter of debate. Hypertonic sodium (HS) solutions have been advocated for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (small volume resuscitation). As hypertonic fluids may also be of interest in cardiac surgery, the effects of a new HS solution were studied.

METHODS.

In 90 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass grafting studies were performed at three different periods: I (n = 30) after induction of anesthesia (before onset of the operation); II (n = 30) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); III (n = 30) after termination of bypass. During these periods the patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups with 10 patients in each group: group 1 received a new hypertonic solution prepared in hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution (72 g/l NaCl, 60 g/l HES, 2400 mosmol/l; HS-HES patients), group 2 received a 6% HES solution (200/0.5; HES patients), and group 3 received no volume infusion and served as controls.

RESULTS.

After the induction of anesthesia, significantly less HS-HES solution (4.5 +/- 0.5 ml/kg) than 6% HES solution (10.1 +/- 1.4 ml/kg) was necessary to double the baseline PCWP. The fluid balance during CPB was negative in the patients who had received HS-HES preoperatively (-0.03 +/- 0.01 ml/kg.min CPB), whereas 6% HES (+0.06 +/- 0.02 ml/kg.min CPB) and control patients (+0.13 +/- 0.03 ml/kg.min CPB) had a positive fluid balance. Both after the induction of anesthesia and after termination of bypass, CI increased more in the HS-HES group than in the HES patients, and it even decreased in the control group. SVR decreased in the HS-HES patients, whereas it increased in the control group. Rapid infusion of HS-HES during CPB was followed by a significant, but short-lasting decrease in MAP (-40 mmHg) and an increase in the oxygenator volume. Pulmonary gas exchange (= paO2) was least compromised in the HS-HES patients; the sodium concentration increased only in the HS-HES patients, but never exceeded 150 mmol/l.

DISCUSSION.

Cardiac surgery procedures offer a special situation for volume therapy as there is a possibility of deterioration in the macro- and microcirculation before, after, and during the period of CPB. Hemodynamic effects of the new HS-HES solution included an increase in CI and a decrease in SVR, which were not merely transient as has been reported which hypertonic saline solution used alone. It was also observed that HS-HES patients required significantly smaller volumes of fluids, both during CPB and during the early postoperative period. This effect seems to be due to a redistribution of interstitial fluid to the intravascular space, possibly decreasing tissue edema.

CONCLUSION.

The hypertonic saline HES solution adds a new dimension to volume therapy for cardiac surgery patients. The improvement in hemodynamics was effective and not only transient. Fluid requirements were significantly reduced during as well as after CPB, and pulmonary gas exchange was least compromised in these patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Abteilung Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
English Abstract
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

ger

PubMed ID

1699443

Citation

Boldt, J, et al. "[Hyperosmolar Volume Replacement in Heart Surgery]." Der Anaesthesist, vol. 39, no. 8, 1990, pp. 412-9.
Boldt J, Zickmann B, Thiel A, et al. [Hyperosmolar volume replacement in heart surgery]. Anaesthesist. 1990;39(8):412-9.
Boldt, J., Zickmann, B., Thiel, A., Herold, C., Dapper, F., & Hempelmann, G. (1990). [Hyperosmolar volume replacement in heart surgery]. Der Anaesthesist, 39(8), 412-9.
Boldt J, et al. [Hyperosmolar Volume Replacement in Heart Surgery]. Anaesthesist. 1990;39(8):412-9. PubMed PMID: 1699443.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Hyperosmolar volume replacement in heart surgery]. AU - Boldt,J, AU - Zickmann,B, AU - Thiel,A, AU - Herold,C, AU - Dapper,F, AU - Hempelmann,G, PY - 1990/8/1/pubmed PY - 1990/8/1/medline PY - 1990/8/1/entrez SP - 412 EP - 9 JF - Der Anaesthesist JO - Anaesthesist VL - 39 IS - 8 N2 - The ideal solution for use in volume therapy is still a matter of debate. Hypertonic sodium (HS) solutions have been advocated for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (small volume resuscitation). As hypertonic fluids may also be of interest in cardiac surgery, the effects of a new HS solution were studied. METHODS. In 90 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass grafting studies were performed at three different periods: I (n = 30) after induction of anesthesia (before onset of the operation); II (n = 30) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); III (n = 30) after termination of bypass. During these periods the patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups with 10 patients in each group: group 1 received a new hypertonic solution prepared in hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution (72 g/l NaCl, 60 g/l HES, 2400 mosmol/l; HS-HES patients), group 2 received a 6% HES solution (200/0.5; HES patients), and group 3 received no volume infusion and served as controls. RESULTS. After the induction of anesthesia, significantly less HS-HES solution (4.5 +/- 0.5 ml/kg) than 6% HES solution (10.1 +/- 1.4 ml/kg) was necessary to double the baseline PCWP. The fluid balance during CPB was negative in the patients who had received HS-HES preoperatively (-0.03 +/- 0.01 ml/kg.min CPB), whereas 6% HES (+0.06 +/- 0.02 ml/kg.min CPB) and control patients (+0.13 +/- 0.03 ml/kg.min CPB) had a positive fluid balance. Both after the induction of anesthesia and after termination of bypass, CI increased more in the HS-HES group than in the HES patients, and it even decreased in the control group. SVR decreased in the HS-HES patients, whereas it increased in the control group. Rapid infusion of HS-HES during CPB was followed by a significant, but short-lasting decrease in MAP (-40 mmHg) and an increase in the oxygenator volume. Pulmonary gas exchange (= paO2) was least compromised in the HS-HES patients; the sodium concentration increased only in the HS-HES patients, but never exceeded 150 mmol/l. DISCUSSION. Cardiac surgery procedures offer a special situation for volume therapy as there is a possibility of deterioration in the macro- and microcirculation before, after, and during the period of CPB. Hemodynamic effects of the new HS-HES solution included an increase in CI and a decrease in SVR, which were not merely transient as has been reported which hypertonic saline solution used alone. It was also observed that HS-HES patients required significantly smaller volumes of fluids, both during CPB and during the early postoperative period. This effect seems to be due to a redistribution of interstitial fluid to the intravascular space, possibly decreasing tissue edema. CONCLUSION. The hypertonic saline HES solution adds a new dimension to volume therapy for cardiac surgery patients. The improvement in hemodynamics was effective and not only transient. Fluid requirements were significantly reduced during as well as after CPB, and pulmonary gas exchange was least compromised in these patients. SN - 0003-2417 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1699443/[Hyperosmolar_volume_replacement_in_heart_surgery]_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/coronaryarterybypasssurgery.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -