Protective effects of soft acrylic yellow filter against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats.Exp Eye Res 2006; 83(6):1493-504EE
Recently, a yellow intraocular lens (IOL) was developed for the purpose of reducing potential blue light-induced retinal damage after cataract surgery. However, the effect of yellow filters on retinal protection remains to be clarified. To test the protective effects of yellow filters on blue light-induced retinal damage, a yellow and a clear soft acrylic filter were attached to the right and left eyes, respectively, of albino rats and exposed to 4.5 k lux blue fluorescent lights with peak wavelength at 420 nm (ranging 380-500 nm; short blue) or 446 nm (ranging 400-540 nm; long blue) for 6h. To assess retinal damage, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded at 7 days, outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness and area were measured at 7 days, apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL staining at 24 h, and the level of lipid peroxidation in retinas was assessed by Western dot blots using specific antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)- and carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP)-modified proteins immediately after light exposure. After short blue light exposure, a- and b-wave ERG amplitudes and the ONL thickness at 1-2.5 mm inferior and 0.5-2.5 mm superior to optic nerve head (ONH) were significantly reduced. TUNEL staining in the ONL at 0-2 mm inferior and 1-2 mm superior to the ONH, and retinal levels of 4-HNE- and CEP-modified proteins were significantly increased in the clear filter-covered eyes compared to yellow filter-covered eyes. After long blue light exposure, the only difference seen was a greater ONL thickness at 1.5 mm superior to the ONH in yellow filter-covered eye. Transmission of light through the yellow filter was 58% for short blue and 89% for long blue compared to the clear filter. The ONL area was not different between clear filter-covered and -uncovered eyes after exposure to short or long blue light. Given the results, yellow IOL material protects the retina against acute shorter wavelength blue light exposure more effectively than the clear IOL material.