Blinded comparison of a direct immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody staining method and a Giemsa staining method for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep; 28(9):2136-8.JC
A new direct immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody (DFA) method (Genetic Systems, Inc., Seattle, Wash.) for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was compared in a blinded study with an established Giemsa stain method. We evaluated 148 consecutive clinical specimens from 104 patients with the following results. For the 67 patients (64%) infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 49 were initially negative by both the DFA and the Giemsa methods, none were negative by DFA and positive by Giemsa, 6 were positive by DFA and negative by Giemsa, and 12 were positive by both methods, for a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of greater than 99%. For the six patients positive by DFA and negative by Giemsa, all were positive by both methods on evaluation of subsequently obtained clinical specimens, suggesting a specificity of greater than 99% and a false-positive rate of less than 1%. For 37 patients whose HIV status was negative or unknown, 35 were negative by both methods and 2 were positive by DFA and negative by Giemsa. The DFA method was simple to perform and required less time for scoring of stained slides than the Giemsa method, but care had to be taken to avoid false-positive readings due to extraneous fluorescence. This study indicates that the DFA method represents an advance as a sensitive, simple, and rapid way to identify P. carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV-infected patients and suggests greater sensitivity of the DFA than the Giemsa method in this patient population.