A novel dysphagia diet improves the nutrient intake of institutionalized elders.J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Oct; 106(10):1614-23.JA
Dysphagia affects 35% to 60% of the institutionalized elderly population. This study aimed at evaluating the nutrient intake of frail institutionalized elderly persons with dysphagia and to assess the impact of Sainte-Anne's Hospital Advanced Nutritional Care program on dietary intake and weight.
A 12-week intervention study.
Ninety-three individuals residing in a Montreal, Canada, long-term care facility who were aged at least 65 years were evaluated. Seventeen subjects with a body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) <24 or weight loss >7.5% within 3 months and with dysphagia were included.
The treated group (n=8; aged 82.5+/-4.41 years, weight 55.9+/-12.1 kg, BMI 22.4+/-3.93) received Sainte-Anne's Hospital reshaped minced- or pureed-texture foods with thickened beverages where required. The control group (n=9; aged 84.6+/-3.81 years, weight 54.3+/-7.49 kg, BMI 21.2+/-2.31) maintained traditional nourishment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Macronutrient and micronutrient intake, weight, and BMI were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks.
Student t tests were performed to evaluate change within and between groups.
The treatment and control groups were similar at baseline, having a mean age of 82.5+/-4.41 years vs 84.6+/-3.81 years and BMI of 22.4+/-3.93 vs 21.2+/-2.31, respectively. The average weight in the treated group increased compared to the control group (3.90+/-2.30 vs -0.79+/-4.18 kg; P=0.02). Similarly, the treated group presented an increased intake of energy, proteins, fats, total saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin B-2, and vitamin D compared to control subjects (P<0.05).
Institutionalized elderly patients with dysphagia can eat better and increase body weight via a diversified, modified in texture, and appealing oral diet that meets their nutrition needs.