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Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: overall burden and rates of treatment and control.
Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25; 166(17):1884-91.AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in this setting is not well described.

METHODS

We compared the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their treatment and control among persons with and without CKD in 3258 Framingham offspring cohort members who attended the seventh examination cycle (1998-2001). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. We defined CKD as a GFR of less than 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) in women and less than 64 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) in men.

RESULTS

Those with CKD were older, more likely to be obese (33.5% vs 29.3%; P=.02), and more likely to have low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (45.2% vs 29.4%; P<.001) and high triglyceride levels (39.9% vs 29.8%; P<.001). Those with CKD had a higher prevalence of hypertension (71.2% vs 42.7%; P<.001) and hypertension treatment (86.0% vs 72.5%; P<.001), but were less likely to achieve optimal blood pressure control (27.0% vs 45.5%; P<.001). Participants with CKD had a higher prevalence of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (60.5% vs 44.7%; P=.06) and lipid-lowering therapy (57.1% vs 42.6%; P=.09), although this was not statistically significant. A greater proportion of individuals with CKD than those without had diabetes (23.5% vs 11.9%; P=.02) and were receiving diabetes treatment (63.6% vs 46.9%; P=.05), but were less likely to achieve a hemoglobin A(1c) level of less than 7% (43.8% vs 59.4%; P=.03).

CONCLUSIONS

Chronic kidney disease is associated with a significant burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the community. The diagnosis of CKD should alert the practitioner to look for potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Mass, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17000946

Citation

Parikh, Nisha I., et al. "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease: Overall Burden and Rates of Treatment and Control." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, no. 17, 2006, pp. 1884-91.
Parikh NI, Hwang SJ, Larson MG, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: overall burden and rates of treatment and control. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(17):1884-91.
Parikh, N. I., Hwang, S. J., Larson, M. G., Meigs, J. B., Levy, D., & Fox, C. S. (2006). Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: overall burden and rates of treatment and control. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(17), 1884-91.
Parikh NI, et al. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease: Overall Burden and Rates of Treatment and Control. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25;166(17):1884-91. PubMed PMID: 17000946.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: overall burden and rates of treatment and control. AU - Parikh,Nisha I, AU - Hwang,Shih-Jen, AU - Larson,Martin G, AU - Meigs,James B, AU - Levy,Daniel, AU - Fox,Caroline S, PY - 2006/9/27/pubmed PY - 2006/10/28/medline PY - 2006/9/27/entrez SP - 1884 EP - 91 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch Intern Med VL - 166 IS - 17 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in this setting is not well described. METHODS: We compared the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their treatment and control among persons with and without CKD in 3258 Framingham offspring cohort members who attended the seventh examination cycle (1998-2001). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. We defined CKD as a GFR of less than 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) in women and less than 64 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) in men. RESULTS: Those with CKD were older, more likely to be obese (33.5% vs 29.3%; P=.02), and more likely to have low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (45.2% vs 29.4%; P<.001) and high triglyceride levels (39.9% vs 29.8%; P<.001). Those with CKD had a higher prevalence of hypertension (71.2% vs 42.7%; P<.001) and hypertension treatment (86.0% vs 72.5%; P<.001), but were less likely to achieve optimal blood pressure control (27.0% vs 45.5%; P<.001). Participants with CKD had a higher prevalence of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (60.5% vs 44.7%; P=.06) and lipid-lowering therapy (57.1% vs 42.6%; P=.09), although this was not statistically significant. A greater proportion of individuals with CKD than those without had diabetes (23.5% vs 11.9%; P=.02) and were receiving diabetes treatment (63.6% vs 46.9%; P=.05), but were less likely to achieve a hemoglobin A(1c) level of less than 7% (43.8% vs 59.4%; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic kidney disease is associated with a significant burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the community. The diagnosis of CKD should alert the practitioner to look for potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17000946/Cardiovascular_disease_risk_factors_in_chronic_kidney_disease:_overall_burden_and_rates_of_treatment_and_control_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -