Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: overall burden and rates of treatment and control.Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25; 166(17):1884-91.AI
Mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in this setting is not well described.
We compared the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their treatment and control among persons with and without CKD in 3258 Framingham offspring cohort members who attended the seventh examination cycle (1998-2001). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. We defined CKD as a GFR of less than 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) in women and less than 64 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) in men.
Those with CKD were older, more likely to be obese (33.5% vs 29.3%; P=.02), and more likely to have low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (45.2% vs 29.4%; P<.001) and high triglyceride levels (39.9% vs 29.8%; P<.001). Those with CKD had a higher prevalence of hypertension (71.2% vs 42.7%; P<.001) and hypertension treatment (86.0% vs 72.5%; P<.001), but were less likely to achieve optimal blood pressure control (27.0% vs 45.5%; P<.001). Participants with CKD had a higher prevalence of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (60.5% vs 44.7%; P=.06) and lipid-lowering therapy (57.1% vs 42.6%; P=.09), although this was not statistically significant. A greater proportion of individuals with CKD than those without had diabetes (23.5% vs 11.9%; P=.02) and were receiving diabetes treatment (63.6% vs 46.9%; P=.05), but were less likely to achieve a hemoglobin A(1c) level of less than 7% (43.8% vs 59.4%; P=.03).
Chronic kidney disease is associated with a significant burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the community. The diagnosis of CKD should alert the practitioner to look for potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.