Once-daily intravenous busulfan in children prior to stem cell transplantation: study of pharmacokinetics and early clinical outcomes.Anticancer Drugs. 2006 Oct; 17(9):1099-105.AD
We studied the pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome of a new once-daily intravenous area under the curve-targeted dosing scheme for busulfan based on body surface area. Eighteen children undergoing busulfan-based conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation were enrolled. The age of the children ranged from 0.5 to 16 years. For all children, the starting dose was 80 mg/m. Unlimited dose adjustment was allowed to reach the target area under the curve (3800 micromol/l . min). This target area under the curve was determined on the basis of a previous study in our hospital. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed after the first dose. The median area under the curve on day 1 was 2616 (range 1781-5040) micromol/l . min at a dose of 80 mg/m. This resulted in a median dose increment to 114 (range 62-168) mg/m to reach the target area under the curve. In only one patient, the dose was decreased. Donor engraftment was established in 14 out of 18 patients (78%). Two of the four patients were successfully retransplanted. Relapse occurred in two patients (one died, one received additional treatment). Fourteen patients survived with a median follow-up of 1.6 years (1.0-2.2 years). The disease-free survival was 66% (12 of 18 patients). Despite the high systemic peak levels, there was no new unexpected or unusual toxicity. Moderate veno-occlusive disease was seen in one patient only. We conclude that intravenous busulfan in children administered once daily is safe, convenient and feasible, and can be dosed surface-based, independent of age. There was very limited (liver) toxicity, but the rejection rate was relative high, which can be probably overcome by a higher exposure to busulfan. Future investigations should be aimed at further optimizing the target area under the curve of intravenous busulfan for specific patient groups.