Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular risk factors in Bucaramanga, Colombia: results from the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Intervention Programme (CINDI/CARMEN) baseline survey.Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Oct; 13(5):769-75.EJ
Although cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the region, there are few data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Latin American. We studied the distribution and impact of cardiovascular risk factors in Bucaramanga, Colombia.
We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2989 subjects 15-64 years old. Population attributable risks were estimated from Framingham risk scores.
Smoking prevalence was 16.2% (men 26.3%; women 10.5%). Hypertension prevalence was 9.9% in women and 8.8% in men, but reached 50% in those 60-64 years old. After adjustment for body mass index, men were more likely to be hypertensive, but only if under 40 years old. Obesity was more frequent in women (15.7%) than in men (8.7%), even after age-adjustment. About 46% of the participants were overweight or obese. Women also had higher prevalence of high total cholesterol (19.7 versus 15.7%) and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (23.9 versus 19.5%), but lower prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (22.2 versus 37.6%). Only low-HDL prevalence was significantly different after body mass index and age-adjustment. The prevalence of diabetes was similar in men and women (4%), but age and body mass index-adjusted impaired fasting glucose prevalence was 60% higher in women. Population attributable risks were larger and similar for high total cholesterol, hypertension, and large waist-to-hip ratio (19%).
Women had higher prevalence of all risk factors with the exception of smoking and low-HDL. Reduction in cholesterol levels, blood pressure and obesity is a priority to control the ongoing epidemic of cardiovascular diseases in this population.