Metabolite profiling of grape: Flavonols and anthocyanins.J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Oct 04; 54(20):7692-702.JA
Flavonols are products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which also give rise to anthocyanins and condensed tannins in grapes. We investigated their presence in the berry skins of 91 grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), in order to produce a classification based on the flavonol profile. The presence of laricitrin 3-O-galactoside and syringetin 3-O-galactoside in red grapes is reported here for the first time. In red grapes, the main flavonol was quercetin (mean = 43.99%), followed by myricetin (36.81%), kaempferol (6.43%), laricitrin (5.65%), isorhamnetin (3.89%), and syringetin (3.22%). In white grapes, the main flavonol was quercetin (mean = 81.35%), followed by kaempferol (16.91%) and isorhamnetin (1.74%). The delphinidin-like flavonols myricetin, laricitrin, and syringetin were missing in all white varieties, indicating that the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase is not expressed in white grape varieties. The pattern of expression of flavonols and anthocyanins in red grapes was compared, in order to gain information on the substrate specificity of enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis.