Low ankle-brachial index predicts an adverse 1-year outcome after acute coronary and cerebrovascular events.J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Dec; 4(12):2599-606.JT
Low ankle-brachial Index (ABI) identifies patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The aim of this study was to correlate ABI value (normal or low) with 1-year clinical outcome in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndromes or cerebrovascular diseases (CVD).
ABI was measured in consecutive patients hospitalized because of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). An ABI lower than or equal to 0.90 was considered abnormal. The primary outcome of the study was the composite of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and death from any cause during the year following the index event.
An abnormal ABI was found in 27.2% of 1003 patients with acute coronary syndromes, and in 33.5% of 755 patients with acute CVD. After a median follow-up of 372 days, the frequency of the primary outcome was 10.8% (57/526) in patients with abnormal ABI and 5.9% (73/1232) in patients with normal ABI [odds ratio (OR) 1.96; 95% CI 1.36-2.81]. Death was more common in patients with abnormal ABI (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.31-3.22). Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 81.7% of overall mortality. ABI was predictive of adverse outcome after adjustment for vascular risk factors in the logistic regression analysis (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.24-3.01). The predictive value of ABI was mainly accounted for by patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndromes (adverse outcome: 12.8% in patients with abnormal ABI and 5.9% in patients with normal ABI, OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.47-3.76).
An abnormal ABI can be found in one-third of patients hospitalized for acute coronary or cerebrovascular events and is a predictor of an adverse 1-year outcome.