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Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women.
Diabetes Care 2006; 29(10):2238-43DC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Inverse associations between magnesium and calcium intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes have been reported for studies in predominantly white populations. We examined magnesium, calcium, and major food sources in relation to type 2 diabetes in African-American women.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

This is a prospective cohort study including 41,186 participants of the Black Women's Health Study without a history of diabetes who completed validated food frequency questionnaires at baseline. During 8 years of follow-up (1995-2003), we documented 1,964 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes.

RESULTS

The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of intake was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.81; P trend <0.0001) for dietary magnesium and 0.86 (0.74-1.00; P trend = 0.01) for dietary calcium. After mutual adjustment, the association for calcium disappeared (hazard ratio 1.04 [95% CI 0.88-1.24]; P trend = 0.88), whereas the association for magnesium remained. Daily consumption of low-fat dairy (0.87 [0.76-1.00]; P trend = 0.04) and whole grains (0.69 [0.60-0.79]; P trend <0.0001) were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with a consumption less than once a week. After mutual adjustment, the hazard ratio was 0.81 (0.68-0.97; P trend = 0.02) for magnesium and 0.73 (0.63-0.85; P trend <0.0001) for whole grains.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings indicate that a diet high in magnesium-rich foods, particularly whole grains, is associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA. rvandam@hsph.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17003299

Citation

van Dam, Rob M., et al. "Dietary Calcium and Magnesium, Major Food Sources, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in U.S. Black Women." Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 10, 2006, pp. 2238-43.
van Dam RM, Hu FB, Rosenberg L, et al. Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(10):2238-43.
van Dam, R. M., Hu, F. B., Rosenberg, L., Krishnan, S., & Palmer, J. R. (2006). Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. Diabetes Care, 29(10), pp. 2238-43.
van Dam RM, et al. Dietary Calcium and Magnesium, Major Food Sources, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in U.S. Black Women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(10):2238-43. PubMed PMID: 17003299.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. AU - van Dam,Rob M, AU - Hu,Frank B, AU - Rosenberg,Lynn, AU - Krishnan,Supriya, AU - Palmer,Julie R, PY - 2006/9/28/pubmed PY - 2007/1/6/medline PY - 2006/9/28/entrez SP - 2238 EP - 43 JF - Diabetes care JO - Diabetes Care VL - 29 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Inverse associations between magnesium and calcium intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes have been reported for studies in predominantly white populations. We examined magnesium, calcium, and major food sources in relation to type 2 diabetes in African-American women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study including 41,186 participants of the Black Women's Health Study without a history of diabetes who completed validated food frequency questionnaires at baseline. During 8 years of follow-up (1995-2003), we documented 1,964 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of intake was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.81; P trend <0.0001) for dietary magnesium and 0.86 (0.74-1.00; P trend = 0.01) for dietary calcium. After mutual adjustment, the association for calcium disappeared (hazard ratio 1.04 [95% CI 0.88-1.24]; P trend = 0.88), whereas the association for magnesium remained. Daily consumption of low-fat dairy (0.87 [0.76-1.00]; P trend = 0.04) and whole grains (0.69 [0.60-0.79]; P trend <0.0001) were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with a consumption less than once a week. After mutual adjustment, the hazard ratio was 0.81 (0.68-0.97; P trend = 0.02) for magnesium and 0.73 (0.63-0.85; P trend <0.0001) for whole grains. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that a diet high in magnesium-rich foods, particularly whole grains, is associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. SN - 0149-5992 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17003299/Dietary_calcium_and_magnesium_major_food_sources_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_U_S__black_women_ L2 - http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=17003299 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -