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Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States).
Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17(9):1193-207CC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the relationship between the intake of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and antioxidants, and the risk of prostate cancer in male participants in a large multiethnic cohort study.

METHODS

Food and nutrient intakes in 1993-1996 were calculated from a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to account for the food and nutrient intake of the ethnic groups represented in the study (82,486 African-American, Japanese-American, Native-Hawaiian, Latino and White males included here). Follow-up for incident cancers utilized local SEER registries. Vital status was ascertained using state death files. Data on PSA utilization from a later questionnaire was also examined.

RESULTS

A total of 3,922 incident cancer cases were ascertained during follow-up. Modestly increased risks of prostate cancer were observed in relation to higher intakes of several food items including light green lettuce and dark leafy green vegetables. Notably, no significant protective associations of any foods were seen, including tomato intake; and intakes of two complex foods containing tomato sauce (pizza and Spanish rice) were associated with modest increases in risk. PSA test use was significantly and positively related to intake of some of these same items, implying a degree of disease detection-bias. Analysis of non-localized and high grade disease (1,345 cases) showed no significant protective associations with overall fruits and vegetables intake, related micronutrients, or with intake of selected complex food items.

CONCLUSIONS

We found no statistically significant evidence of a protective effect against prostate cancer of higher levels of intake of any of these foods, associated micronutrients or supplements. A possible explanation for the positive associations with risk of several of the foods normally considered to be healthy is detection bias, since "healthy" dietary intake was related to greater use of the PSA test.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Preventive Medicine, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. stram@usc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17006725

Citation

Stram, Daniel O., et al. "Prostate Cancer Incidence and Intake of Fruits, Vegetables and Related Micronutrients: the Multiethnic Cohort Study* (United States)." Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, vol. 17, no. 9, 2006, pp. 1193-207.
Stram DO, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al. Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17(9):1193-207.
Stram, D. O., Hankin, J. H., Wilkens, L. R., Park, S., Henderson, B. E., Nomura, A. M., ... Kolonel, L. N. (2006). Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States). Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, 17(9), pp. 1193-207.
Stram DO, et al. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Intake of Fruits, Vegetables and Related Micronutrients: the Multiethnic Cohort Study* (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17(9):1193-207. PubMed PMID: 17006725.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States). AU - Stram,Daniel O, AU - Hankin,Jean H, AU - Wilkens,Lynne R, AU - Park,Sohee, AU - Henderson,Brian E, AU - Nomura,Abraham M Y, AU - Pike,Malcolm C, AU - Kolonel,Laurence N, PY - 2006/03/14/received PY - 2006/07/17/accepted PY - 2006/9/29/pubmed PY - 2007/2/3/medline PY - 2006/9/29/entrez SP - 1193 EP - 207 JF - Cancer causes & control : CCC JO - Cancer Causes Control VL - 17 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between the intake of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and antioxidants, and the risk of prostate cancer in male participants in a large multiethnic cohort study. METHODS: Food and nutrient intakes in 1993-1996 were calculated from a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to account for the food and nutrient intake of the ethnic groups represented in the study (82,486 African-American, Japanese-American, Native-Hawaiian, Latino and White males included here). Follow-up for incident cancers utilized local SEER registries. Vital status was ascertained using state death files. Data on PSA utilization from a later questionnaire was also examined. RESULTS: A total of 3,922 incident cancer cases were ascertained during follow-up. Modestly increased risks of prostate cancer were observed in relation to higher intakes of several food items including light green lettuce and dark leafy green vegetables. Notably, no significant protective associations of any foods were seen, including tomato intake; and intakes of two complex foods containing tomato sauce (pizza and Spanish rice) were associated with modest increases in risk. PSA test use was significantly and positively related to intake of some of these same items, implying a degree of disease detection-bias. Analysis of non-localized and high grade disease (1,345 cases) showed no significant protective associations with overall fruits and vegetables intake, related micronutrients, or with intake of selected complex food items. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence of a protective effect against prostate cancer of higher levels of intake of any of these foods, associated micronutrients or supplements. A possible explanation for the positive associations with risk of several of the foods normally considered to be healthy is detection bias, since "healthy" dietary intake was related to greater use of the PSA test. SN - 0957-5243 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17006725/Prostate_cancer_incidence_and_intake_of_fruits_vegetables_and_related_micronutrients:_the_multiethnic_cohort_study___United_States__ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-006-0064-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -