The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Ecuador.Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006 Aug; 22(8):447-54.GE
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increases with age and after the onset of menopause, and may explain in part the apparent acceleration of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related risk determinants among postmenopausal women in Ecuador.
Postmenopausal women >or=40 years of age, non-users of hormone therapy and with an intact uterus, were asked to participate in a metabolic syndrome screening and educational program at the Institute of Biomedicine of the Universidad Católica of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Sociodemographic data, waist circumference and blood pressure measurements were recorded, and a fasting blood sample obtained for serum glucose and lipid profile determinations. Woman were counseled and managed according to the results. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III).
Three hundred and twenty-five postmenopausal women entered the program. Mean (+/-standard deviation) age was 55.9 +/- 8.1 years, 53.5% of them were aged >or=54 years (median). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, according to ATP III criteria, was 41.5%. Using the same criteria, 38.8%, 16.6%, 56.9% and 54.2% of the women presented with hypertension, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity, respectively. More than 40% of women determined to have hypertension or diabetes lacked knowing so. Logistic regression analysis determined that age increased the risk of presenting hypertension and diabetes (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.0 (1.2-3.2) and 1.6 (0.9-3.0), respectively, p < 0.05), entities which in turn duplicated the risk of having high triglyceride levels. Sedentary women with <5 years since menopause onset were at higher risk of having abdominal obesity, which was directly related to diabetes and hypertension.
In this postmenopausal Ecuadorian population the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high and its determinant factors related to age, time since menopause onset and sedentary habits. Because of the implications for cardiovascular risk, counseling programs directed toward high-risk populations should be encouraged.