Management of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: treatment strategy based on morphologic classification.J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40(9):856-62JC
The aim of this study was to examine and clarify the preoperative markers that are useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas, grouped according to morphologic classification.
There are various stages of pathology in IPMN, ranging from benign to malignant lesions. Although the determination of appropriate treatment guidelines to deal with IPMN is a critical issue, no such guidelines have been established.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
One hundred twenty cases of IPMN were classified morphologically into either main or branch duct types. We compared the morphologic classification with histopathologic diagnosis using indicators of malignancy detected by imaging such as main duct diameter, the number and diameter of cysts, and the presence or absence of mural nodules. We also examined the usefulness of pancreatic juice cytology and measurement of telomerase activity as indicators of malignancy. Finally, we performed a survival analysis on the basis of morphologic classification to determine prognosis of IPMN.
Whereas a high incidence (64%) of malignant lesions was seen in main duct type IPMN, benign lesions were dominant (80.5%) in branch duct type IPMN. Survival analysis showed that the prognosis was significantly worse in main duct type than in branch duct type IPMN. The lesions were aggravated in all patients with main duct type who did not undergo resection, resulting in death due to progression of the pancreatic lesion. The incidence of mural nodules was a useful indicator in main duct type, whereas main duct diameter and incidence of mural nodules were useful indicators in branch duct type. Although pancreatic juice cytology showed a high accuracy rate with low sensitivity for determining malignancy, measurement of telomerase activity in this juice was very effective for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions.
The incidence of malignant lesions was extremely high in main duct type IPMN, indicating that surgery is required in all these patients. However, to determine whether surgery is indicated in branch duct type IPMN it is necessary to obtain an appropriate image diagnosis focusing on main duct diameter and mural nodules and also to carry out cytology and measurement of telomerase activity in samples of pancreatic juice.