Organ and effective doses in newborn patients during helical multislice computed tomography examination.Phys Med Biol. 2006 Oct 21; 51(20):5151-66.PM
In this study, two computational phantoms of the newborn patient were used to assess individual organ doses and effective doses delivered during head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, and torso examinations using the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 helical multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) scanner. The stylized phantom used to model the patient anatomy was the revised ORNL newborn phantom by Han et al (2006 Health Phys.90 337). The tomographic phantom used in the study was that developed by Nipper et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3143) as recently revised by Staton et al (2006 Med. Phys. 33 3283). The stylized model was implemented within the MCNP5 radiation transport code, while the tomographic phantom was incorporated within the EGSnrc code. In both codes, the x-ray source was modelled as a fan beam originating from the focal spot at a fan angle of 52 degrees and a focal-spot-to-axis distance of 57 cm. The helical path of the source was explicitly modelled based on variations in collimator setting (12 mm or 24 mm), detector pitch and scan length. Tube potentials of 80, 100 and 120 kVp were considered in this study. Beam profile data were acquired using radiological film measurements on a 16 cm PMMA phantom, which yielded effective beam widths of 14.7 mm and 26.8 mm for collimator settings of 12 mm and 24 mm, respectively. Values of absolute organ absorbed dose were determined via the use of normalization factors defined as the ratio of the CTDI(100) measured in-phantom and that determined by Monte Carlo simulation of the PMMA phantom and ion chamber. Across various technique factors, effective dose differences between the stylized and tomographic phantoms ranged from +2% to +9% for head exams, -4% to -2% for chest exams, +8% to +24% for abdominal exams, -16% to -12% for pelvic exams and -7% to 0% for chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) exams. In many cases, however, relatively close agreement in effective dose was accomplished at the expense of compensating errors in individual organ dose. Per cent differences in organ dose between the stylized and tomographic phantoms at 120 kVp and 12 mm collimator setting ranged from -25% (skin) to +164% (muscle) for head exams, -92% (thyroid) to +98% (ovaries) for chest exams, -144% (uterus) to +112% (ovaries) for abdominal exams, -98% (SI wall) to +20% (thymus) for pelvic exams and -60% (extrathoracic airways) to +13% (ovaries) for CAP exams. Better agreement was seen between the two phantom types for organs entirely within the scan field. In these cases, corresponding per cent differences in organ absorbed dose did not vary more than 17%. For all scans, the effective dose was found to range approximately 1-13 mSv across the scan parameters and scan regions. The largest effective dose occurred for CAP scans at 120 kVp.