Intradialytic changes of serum magnesium and their relation to hypotensive episodes in hemodialysis patients on different dialysates.Hemodial Int. 2006 Oct; 10 Suppl 2:S16-23.HI
Magnesium is a crucial mineral, involved in many important physiological processes. Magnesium plays a role of maintaining myocardial electrical stability in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of dialysis and it is more common with acetate dialysate. The significance of the intradialytic changes of magnesium and their relation to parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and calcium changes during dialysis, and their relation to hypotensive episodes during dialysis are interesting. The aim of this work is to investigate the intradialytic changes of serum magnesium in chronic hemodialysis patients with different hemodialysis modalities and the relation to other electrolytes and to PTH, and also the relation to intradialytic hypotension. The present study was conducted on 20 chronic renal failure patients. All patients were on regular hemodialysis thrice weekly 4 hr each using acetate dialysate (group I). To study the effect of an acetate-based dialysate vs. a bicarbonate-based dialysate on acute changes of magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and PTH during a hemodialysis session, the same patients were shifted to bicarbonate dialysis (group II). All patients were subjected to full history and clinical examination, predialysis laboratory assessment of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, albumin, and hemoglobin, serial assessment of magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone at the start of the hemodialysis session, 2 hr later, and at the end of the session, blood pH, and electrocardiogram (ECG) presession and postsession. All patients were urged to fix their dry weight, diet, and current medications. None of the patients had diabetes, neoplasia, liver disease, or cachexia, nor had they been recently on magnesium-containing drugs or previously parathyroidectomized. Hemodialysis sessions were performed by volumetric dialysis machines using the same electrolyte composition. Magnesium level significantly increased in the bicarbonate group at the end of dialysis (0 hr: 2.73+/-0.87, 2 hr: 3.21+/-1.1, and at 4 hr: 5.73+/-1.45 mg/dL, p value <0.01), while it significantly decreased in the acetate group (0 hr: 3.00+/-0.58, 2 hr: 2.26+/-0.39, 4 hr: 1.97+/-0.33 mg/dL, p value <0.01). Calcium level significantly increased in the bicarbonate group (p=0.024) but not in the acetate group. Phosphorus level significantly decreased in both acetate and bicarbonate groups. PTH level did not significantly change in either group, p value > or =0.05. Blood pH significantly increased, changing from acidic to alkaline pH, with both modalities of hemodialysis. ECG showed no significant changes during sessions with either type of dialysate. Hypotension was significantly higher in group I compared with group II (p=0.01), and this hypotension was positively correlated with a decrease in serum magnesium level in group I. Intradialytic changes in serum magnesium have no correlation with intradialytic changes in serum calcium or with PTH level. However, it was significantly correlated with hypotension during the dialysis session, especially with acetate dialysate. Further investigations are needed to determine whether or not this is true in patients using bicarbonate dialysis.