Low nuclear DNA variation supports a recent origin of Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae).Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007 Jun; 43(3):908-15.MP
Previous phylogenetic work on the Hawaiian bees of the genus Hylaeus, based on mitochondrial DNA and morphology, appeared to support a recent origin for the group, but support for the resulting tree was weak. Four nuclear genes with varying evolutionary rates -- arginine kinase, EF-1alpha, opsin, and wingless -- were sequenced for a reduced taxon set in an attempt to find one or more data set that would provide better support. All showed very low variation (<2%) in the ingroup. Comparison among genes revealed a much higher than expected rate of evolution in mtDNA, especially at first and second positions. While the data from the nuclear genes showed insufficient variation for phylogenetic analysis, the strong sequence similarity among the Hawaiian species supports the previous hypothesis of a recent origin for the group.