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Relationships between air pollution and preterm birth in California.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006 Nov; 20(6):454-61.PP

Abstract

Air pollution from vehicular emissions and other combustion sources is related to cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth, a primary cause of infant mortality and morbidity. This analysis examined the effect of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and carbon monoxide (CO) on preterm birth in a matched case-control study. PM(2.5) and CO monitoring data from the California Air Resources Board were linked to California birth certificate data for singletons born in 1999-2000. Each birth was mapped to the closest PM monitor within 5 miles of the home address. County-level CO measures were utilised to increase sample size and maintain a representative population. After exclusion of implausible birthweight-gestation combinations, preterm birth was defined as birth occurring between 24 and 36 weeks' gestation. Each of the 10 673 preterm cases was matched to three controls of term (39-44 weeks) gestation with a similar date of last menstrual period. Based on the case's gestational age, CO and PM(2.5) exposures were calculated for total pregnancy, first month of pregnancy, and last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Exposures were divided into quartiles; the lowest quartile was the reference. Because of the matched design, conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for maternal race/ethnicity, age, parity, marital status and education. High total pregnancy PM(2.5) exposure was associated with a small effect on preterm birth, after adjustment for maternal factors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.15, [95% CI 1.07, 1.24]). The odds ratio did not change after adjustment for CO. Results were similar for PM(2.5) exposure during the first month of pregnancy (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI [1.12, 1.30]) and the last 2 weeks of pregnancy (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.09, 1.27]). Conversely, CO exposure at any time during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth (AORs from 0.95 to 1.00). Maternal exposure to PM(2.5), but not CO, is associated with preterm birth. This analysis did not show differences by timing of exposure, although more detailed examination may be needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, USA. mhuynh@health.nyc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17052280

Citation

Huynh, Mary, et al. "Relationships Between Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in California." Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 20, no. 6, 2006, pp. 454-61.
Huynh M, Woodruff TJ, Parker JD, et al. Relationships between air pollution and preterm birth in California. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20(6):454-61.
Huynh, M., Woodruff, T. J., Parker, J. D., & Schoendorf, K. C. (2006). Relationships between air pollution and preterm birth in California. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 20(6), 454-61.
Huynh M, et al. Relationships Between Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in California. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20(6):454-61. PubMed PMID: 17052280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relationships between air pollution and preterm birth in California. AU - Huynh,Mary, AU - Woodruff,Tracey J, AU - Parker,Jennifer D, AU - Schoendorf,Kenneth C, PY - 2006/10/21/pubmed PY - 2007/6/20/medline PY - 2006/10/21/entrez SP - 454 EP - 61 JF - Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology JO - Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol VL - 20 IS - 6 N2 - Air pollution from vehicular emissions and other combustion sources is related to cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth, a primary cause of infant mortality and morbidity. This analysis examined the effect of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and carbon monoxide (CO) on preterm birth in a matched case-control study. PM(2.5) and CO monitoring data from the California Air Resources Board were linked to California birth certificate data for singletons born in 1999-2000. Each birth was mapped to the closest PM monitor within 5 miles of the home address. County-level CO measures were utilised to increase sample size and maintain a representative population. After exclusion of implausible birthweight-gestation combinations, preterm birth was defined as birth occurring between 24 and 36 weeks' gestation. Each of the 10 673 preterm cases was matched to three controls of term (39-44 weeks) gestation with a similar date of last menstrual period. Based on the case's gestational age, CO and PM(2.5) exposures were calculated for total pregnancy, first month of pregnancy, and last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Exposures were divided into quartiles; the lowest quartile was the reference. Because of the matched design, conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for maternal race/ethnicity, age, parity, marital status and education. High total pregnancy PM(2.5) exposure was associated with a small effect on preterm birth, after adjustment for maternal factors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.15, [95% CI 1.07, 1.24]). The odds ratio did not change after adjustment for CO. Results were similar for PM(2.5) exposure during the first month of pregnancy (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI [1.12, 1.30]) and the last 2 weeks of pregnancy (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.09, 1.27]). Conversely, CO exposure at any time during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth (AORs from 0.95 to 1.00). Maternal exposure to PM(2.5), but not CO, is associated with preterm birth. This analysis did not show differences by timing of exposure, although more detailed examination may be needed. SN - 0269-5022 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17052280/Relationships_between_air_pollution_and_preterm_birth_in_California_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2006.00759.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -