SAGE analysis of mosquito salivary gland transcriptomes during Plasmodium invasion.Cell Microbiol. 2007 Mar; 9(3):708-24.CM
Invasion of the vector salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. To describe salivary gland cellular responses to sporozoite invasion, we have undertaken the analysis of Anopheles gambiae salivary gland transcriptome using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). Statistical analysis of the more than 160000 sequenced tags generated from four libraries, two from glands infected by Plasmodium berghei, two from glands of controls, revealed that at least 57 Anopheles genes are differentially expressed in infected salivary glands. Among the 37 immune-related genes identified by SAGE tags, four (Defensin1, GNBP, Serpin6 and Cecropin2) were found to be upregulated during salivary gland invasion, while five genes encoding small secreted proteins display induction patterns strongly reminiscent of that of Cecropin2. Invasion by Plasmodium has also an impact on the expression of genes involved in transport, lipid and energy metabolism, suggesting that the sporozoite may exploit the metabolism of its host. In contrast, protein composition of saliva is predicted to be only slightly modified after infection. This study, which is the first transcriptome analysis of the salivary gland response to Plasmodium infection, provides a basis for a better understanding of Plasmodium/Anopheles salivary gland interactions.