Relation of borderline peripheral arterial disease to cardiovascular disease risk.Am J Cardiol 2006; 98(9):1226-30AJ
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a well-established risk factor for clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). The impact of a low ankle-brachial index (ABI), higher than the generally recognized 0.9 cutpoint for PAD, on CVD risk is not well characterized. We analyzed data from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4,895), a nationally representative sample of United States adults, to determine the prevalence of PAD (ABI <0.90), borderline PAD (ABI 0.90 to 0.99), a low-normal ABI (1.00 to 1.09), and a normal ABI (1.10 to 1.29), and the association of these ABI levels with CVD. The prevalence of PAD, borderline PAD, a low-normal ABI, and a normal ABI was 5.0%, 8.7%, 27.8%, and 54.8%, respectively. After age, race/ethnicity, and gender adjustment, the odds ratios of a 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of >or=20%, CHD, stroke, and CVD were higher at lower ABI levels (each p trend <0.01). After additional adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios associated with a low-normal ABI, borderline PAD, and PAD, compared with those with a normal ABI, were 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 1.70), 1.34 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.83), and 1.87 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.73), respectively (p trend <0.001) for CVD and 1.20 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.77), 1.45 (95% CI 0.80 to 2.63), and 2.02 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.39), respectively (p trend = 0.015) for a 10-year risk of CHD of >or=20%. In contrast, a trend was not present for CHD and stroke after multivariate adjustment. In conclusion, subjects with a low-normal ABI or with borderline PAD need screening for CVD risk factors, and interventions may be appropriate to prevent cardiovascular events.