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Dietary effects of universal-free school breakfast: findings from the evaluation of the school breakfast program pilot project.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Nov; 106(11):1796-803.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of offering universal-free school breakfast in elementary schools on students' dietary outcomes.

DESIGN

Experimental study with random assignment of 153 matched elementary schools in six school districts. Treatment schools offered universal-free school breakfast, and control schools continued to operate the traditional means-tested School Breakfast Program. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from sample students near the end of the first year.

SUBJECTS

About 30 students in second through sixth grades were randomly selected from each school (n=4,358).

INTERVENTION

Free school breakfasts were made available to all students in treatment schools, regardless of family income, for three consecutive school years (2000-2001 to 2002-2003).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Breakfast consumption and food and nutrient intake.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES

Hierarchical mixed-models and logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, minority status, and income eligibility for the regular school meal programs, were used to estimate effects.

RESULTS

Despite a significant increase in school breakfast participation among sample students in treatment schools (from 16% to 40%, P<0.01), the rate of breakfast skipping did not differ between groups (4% overall). Treatment school students were more likely to consume a nutritionally substantive breakfast (P<0.01), but dietary intakes over 24 hours were essentially the same.

CONCLUSIONS

Making universal-free school breakfast available in elementary schools did not change students' dietary outcomes after nearly 1 year. To improve children's diets overall, efforts should focus on ensuring all students have access to a healthful breakfast, at home or at school.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Mathematica Policy Research, Inc, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. mcrepinsek@mathematica-mpr.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17081831

Citation

Crepinsek, Mary Kay, et al. "Dietary Effects of Universal-free School Breakfast: Findings From the Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 106, no. 11, 2006, pp. 1796-803.
Crepinsek MK, Singh A, Bernstein LS, et al. Dietary effects of universal-free school breakfast: findings from the evaluation of the school breakfast program pilot project. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(11):1796-803.
Crepinsek, M. K., Singh, A., Bernstein, L. S., & McLaughlin, J. E. (2006). Dietary effects of universal-free school breakfast: findings from the evaluation of the school breakfast program pilot project. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(11), 1796-803.
Crepinsek MK, et al. Dietary Effects of Universal-free School Breakfast: Findings From the Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(11):1796-803. PubMed PMID: 17081831.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary effects of universal-free school breakfast: findings from the evaluation of the school breakfast program pilot project. AU - Crepinsek,Mary Kay, AU - Singh,Anita, AU - Bernstein,Lawrence S, AU - McLaughlin,Joan E, PY - 2005/01/25/received PY - 2006/11/4/pubmed PY - 2006/12/9/medline PY - 2006/11/4/entrez SP - 1796 EP - 803 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 106 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of offering universal-free school breakfast in elementary schools on students' dietary outcomes. DESIGN: Experimental study with random assignment of 153 matched elementary schools in six school districts. Treatment schools offered universal-free school breakfast, and control schools continued to operate the traditional means-tested School Breakfast Program. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from sample students near the end of the first year. SUBJECTS: About 30 students in second through sixth grades were randomly selected from each school (n=4,358). INTERVENTION: Free school breakfasts were made available to all students in treatment schools, regardless of family income, for three consecutive school years (2000-2001 to 2002-2003). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Breakfast consumption and food and nutrient intake. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Hierarchical mixed-models and logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, minority status, and income eligibility for the regular school meal programs, were used to estimate effects. RESULTS: Despite a significant increase in school breakfast participation among sample students in treatment schools (from 16% to 40%, P<0.01), the rate of breakfast skipping did not differ between groups (4% overall). Treatment school students were more likely to consume a nutritionally substantive breakfast (P<0.01), but dietary intakes over 24 hours were essentially the same. CONCLUSIONS: Making universal-free school breakfast available in elementary schools did not change students' dietary outcomes after nearly 1 year. To improve children's diets overall, efforts should focus on ensuring all students have access to a healthful breakfast, at home or at school. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17081831/Dietary_effects_of_universal_free_school_breakfast:_findings_from_the_evaluation_of_the_school_breakfast_program_pilot_project_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(06)01837-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -