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Effect of supplemental iron on finishing swine performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality during retail display.
J Anim Sci. 2007 Mar; 85(3):737-45.JA

Abstract

Crossbred pigs (n = 185) were used to test the effects of dietary Fe supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine. Pigs were blocked by BW, allotted to pens (5 to 6 pigs/pen), and pens (5 pens/block) were allotted randomly to either negative control (NC) corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets devoid of Fe in the mineral premix, positive control (PC) corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets with Fe included in the mineral premix, or the PC diets supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 ppm Fe from Availa-Fe (an Fe-AA complex). When the lightest block averaged 118.2 kg, the pigs were slaughtered, and bone-in pork loins were collected during fabrication for pork quality data. During the grower-I phase, there was a tendency for supplemental Fe to reduce ADG linearly (P = 0.10), whereas in the grower-II phase, supplemental Fe tended to increase ADG linearly (P = 0.10). Even though pigs fed NC had greater G:F during the finisher-I phase (P < 0.05) and across the entire trial (P = 0.07), live performance did not (P > or = 0.13) differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in 10th-rib fat depth (P = 0.08) and calculated fat-free lean yield (P = 0.06); otherwise, dietary Fe did not (P > 0.19) affect pork carcass muscling or fatness. Moreover, LM concentrations of total, heme, and nonheme Fe were similar (P > 0.23) among treatments. A randomly selected subset of loins from each treatment was further fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick LM chops, placed on styrofoam trays, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, and placed in coffin-chest display cases (2.6 degrees C) under continuous fluorescent lighting (1,600 lx) for 7 d. During display, chops from NC-fed pigs and pigs fed the diets supplemented with 100 ppm Fe tended to have a more vivid (higher chroma value; P = 0.07), redder (higher a* value; P = 0.09) color than LM chops of pigs fed 50 ppm of supplemental Fe. Moreover, greater (P < 0.01) redness:yellowness ratios in chops from pigs supplemented with 100 ppm Fe indicated a more red color than chops from PC-fed pigs or pigs fed diets supplemented with 50 ppm Fe. In conclusion, however, increasing dietary Fe had no appreciable effects on performance, carcass, or LM characteristics, suggesting that current dietary Fe recommendations are sufficient for optimal growth performance, pork carcass composition, and pork quality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA. japple@uark.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17085730

Citation

Apple, J K., et al. "Effect of Supplemental Iron On Finishing Swine Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Pork Quality During Retail Display." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 85, no. 3, 2007, pp. 737-45.
Apple JK, Wallis-Phelps WA, Maxwell CV, et al. Effect of supplemental iron on finishing swine performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality during retail display. J Anim Sci. 2007;85(3):737-45.
Apple, J. K., Wallis-Phelps, W. A., Maxwell, C. V., Rakes, L. K., Sawyer, J. T., Hutchison, S., & Fakler, T. M. (2007). Effect of supplemental iron on finishing swine performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality during retail display. Journal of Animal Science, 85(3), 737-45.
Apple JK, et al. Effect of Supplemental Iron On Finishing Swine Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Pork Quality During Retail Display. J Anim Sci. 2007;85(3):737-45. PubMed PMID: 17085730.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of supplemental iron on finishing swine performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality during retail display. AU - Apple,J K, AU - Wallis-Phelps,W A, AU - Maxwell,C V, AU - Rakes,L K, AU - Sawyer,J T, AU - Hutchison,S, AU - Fakler,T M, Y1 - 2006/11/03/ PY - 2006/11/7/pubmed PY - 2007/4/17/medline PY - 2006/11/7/entrez SP - 737 EP - 45 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J Anim Sci VL - 85 IS - 3 N2 - Crossbred pigs (n = 185) were used to test the effects of dietary Fe supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine. Pigs were blocked by BW, allotted to pens (5 to 6 pigs/pen), and pens (5 pens/block) were allotted randomly to either negative control (NC) corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets devoid of Fe in the mineral premix, positive control (PC) corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets with Fe included in the mineral premix, or the PC diets supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 ppm Fe from Availa-Fe (an Fe-AA complex). When the lightest block averaged 118.2 kg, the pigs were slaughtered, and bone-in pork loins were collected during fabrication for pork quality data. During the grower-I phase, there was a tendency for supplemental Fe to reduce ADG linearly (P = 0.10), whereas in the grower-II phase, supplemental Fe tended to increase ADG linearly (P = 0.10). Even though pigs fed NC had greater G:F during the finisher-I phase (P < 0.05) and across the entire trial (P = 0.07), live performance did not (P > or = 0.13) differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in 10th-rib fat depth (P = 0.08) and calculated fat-free lean yield (P = 0.06); otherwise, dietary Fe did not (P > 0.19) affect pork carcass muscling or fatness. Moreover, LM concentrations of total, heme, and nonheme Fe were similar (P > 0.23) among treatments. A randomly selected subset of loins from each treatment was further fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick LM chops, placed on styrofoam trays, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, and placed in coffin-chest display cases (2.6 degrees C) under continuous fluorescent lighting (1,600 lx) for 7 d. During display, chops from NC-fed pigs and pigs fed the diets supplemented with 100 ppm Fe tended to have a more vivid (higher chroma value; P = 0.07), redder (higher a* value; P = 0.09) color than LM chops of pigs fed 50 ppm of supplemental Fe. Moreover, greater (P < 0.01) redness:yellowness ratios in chops from pigs supplemented with 100 ppm Fe indicated a more red color than chops from PC-fed pigs or pigs fed diets supplemented with 50 ppm Fe. In conclusion, however, increasing dietary Fe had no appreciable effects on performance, carcass, or LM characteristics, suggesting that current dietary Fe recommendations are sufficient for optimal growth performance, pork carcass composition, and pork quality. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17085730/Effect_of_supplemental_iron_on_finishing_swine_performance_carcass_characteristics_and_pork_quality_during_retail_display_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2006-231 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -