Fungal keratitis: emerging trends and treatment outcomes.Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32(6):267-71EC
To review the trends, risk factors, causative organisms, treatment, and outcomes of fungal keratitis at the authors' institution.
A retrospective review of the records of consecutive patients diagnosed with fungal keratitis at the authors' institution from January 1999 to June 2006.
Eighty-four patients were diagnosed with fungal keratitis during this period. The average age of the patients was 48 years, and 64% were male. Until 2004, trauma (51%) and contact lens use (40%) were the major risk factors. After 2005, contact lens use (52%) surpassed trauma as the most common risk factor (29%). The percentage of fungal ulcers caused by nontherapeutic contact lenses increased from 21% between 1999 and 2001 to 32% between 2002 and 2004 and to 45% in 2005 and 2006. Eighty-six percent of cultured organisms were filamentous. Fusarium (41%) was the most commonly isolated genus, followed by Candida (14%), Curvularia (12%), and Aspergillus (12%). Visual acuity was worse than 20/200 in 56% of patients at presentation. Final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 70% of patients treated with medication alone and 16% of patients requiring therapeutic keratoplasty. Surgical intervention in the acute phase was necessary in 23% of patients. Seventy-four percent of medically treated patients had dual topical antifungal therapy. Natamycin 5% and amphotericin B 0.15% were the most commonly used drugs.
Contact lenses are a major risk factor for fungal keratitis. The incidence of contact lens-related fungal keratitis was increasing even before the Fusarium outbreak in 2005 and 2006. Good visual outcomes can be achieved by aggressive dual topical antifungal therapy.