Response to conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows differing in energy and protein status.J Dairy Sci. 2006 Dec; 89(12):4620-31.JD
The trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer inhibits milk fat synthesis, whereas milk yield and synthesis of other milk components generally remain unchanged in established lactation. However, in some CLA studies increases in milk yield, milk protein yield, or both have been observed in cows limited in energy, either in early lactation or when grazing pasture. Our objective was to evaluate the performance and monitor peripheral tissue responses to homeostatic signals regulating lipolysis and glucose uptake with CLA supplementation when cows were limited in metabolizable energy in combination with moderate or excess metabolizable protein supply. Holstein cows (n = 48; 112 +/- 5 d in milk; mean +/- SE) were provided ad libitum access to a diet that met energy and protein requirements for a 16-d standardization interval. Based on performance during this interval, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System was used to design energy-limiting rations that provided 80% of metabolizable energy requirements, and these were fed throughout the treatment periods. Cows were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, in a 2-period crossover design. Treatments were 1) moderate metabolizable protein (MP) supply, 2) moderate MP supply + CLA, 3) excess MP supply, and 4) excess MP supply + CLA. Moderate and excess MP supply were at 88 and 117%, respectively, of the MP requirement established during the standardization period, as estimated by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Each experimental period comprised 16 d, with crossover of CLA within each protein level. The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement provided 12 g/d of trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Conjugated linoleic acid treatment reduced milk fat yield by 21% but increased milk yield and milk protein yield by 2.6 and 2.8%, respectively. Milk yield and content and yield of both milk protein and fat were unaltered by either protein treatment alone or in combination with CLA. Basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids were unaffected by CLA supplementation. The fractional rate of glucose clearance in response to an insulin challenge and the nonesterified fatty acid response to an epinephrine challenge were also not altered by either CLA treatment or MP supply. Overall, the results demonstrate that CLA supplementation when cows are energy-limited allows for repartitioning of nutrients, resulting in increased yields of milk and milk protein, and this can occur without changes in whole-body glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue response to lipolytic stimuli.