Steroid receptor coactivator-3 and activator protein-1 coordinately regulate the transcription of components of the insulin-like growth factor/AKT signaling pathway.Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 15; 66(22):11039-46.CR
Steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-3, also called amplified in breast cancer 1, is a member of the p160 nuclear receptor coactivator family involved in transcriptional regulation of target genes. SRC-3 is frequently amplified and/or overexpressed in hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive tumors. We reported previously that SRC-3 stimulated prostate cell growth in a hormone-independent manner through activation of AKT signaling pathway. However, the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Here, we exploited the mifepristone-induced SRC-3 LNCaP prostate cancer cell line generated in our laboratory to identify SRC-3-regulated genes by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. We found that SRC-3 up-regulates the expression of multiple genes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/AKT signaling pathway that are involved in cell proliferation and survival. In contrast, knockdown of SRC-3 in PC3 (androgen receptor negative) prostate cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells reduces their expression. Similarly, in prostate glands of SRC-3 null mice, expressions of these components in the IGF/AKT signal pathway are also reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that SRC-3 was directly recruited to the promoters of these genes, indicating that they are direct targets of SRC-3. Interestingly, we showed that recruitment of SRC-3 to two target promoters, IRS-2 and IGF-I, requires transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). Taken together, our results clearly show that SRC-3 and AP-1 can coordinately regulate the transcription of multiple components in the IGF/AKT pathway to ensure ligand-independent cell proliferation and survival of cancer cells.