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Comparison of biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and bronchoalveolar lavage.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb 01; 175(3):222-7.AJ

Abstract

RATIONALE

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method of sampling the lungs, measuring several biomarkers. The exact site of origin of substances measured in EBC is unknown, as is the clinical applicability of the technique. Special techniques might be needed to measure EBC biomarkers.

OBJECTIVES

To assess biomarker concentrations in clinical disease and investigate the site of origin of EBC, we compared EBC and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers in 49 patients undergoing bronchoscopy for clinical indications.

MEASUREMENTS

We measured exhaled nitric oxide, 8-isoprostane, hydrogen peroxide, total nitrogen oxides, pH, total protein, and phospholipid (n = 33) and keratin (n = 15) to assess alveolar and mucinous compartments, respectively. EBC was collected over 10 min using a refrigerated condenser according to European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations, and BAL performed immediately thereafter.

RESULTS

8-Isoprostane, nitrogen oxides, and pH were significantly higher in EBC than in BAL (3.845 vs. 0.027 ng/ml, 28.4 vs. 3.8 microM, and 7.35 vs. 6.4, respectively; p < 0.001). Hydrogen peroxide showed no difference between EBC and BAL (17.5 vs. 20.6 microM, p = not significant), whereas protein was significantly higher in BAL (33.8 vs. 183.2 microg/ml, p < 0.001). Total phospholipid was also higher in EBC, but keratin showed no difference. No significant correlation was found between EBC and BAL for any of the biomarkers evaluated either before or after correction for dilution.

CONCLUSIONS

In clinical disease, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress are easily measurable in EBC using standard laboratory techniques and EBC is readily obtained. However, EBC and BAL markers do not correlate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Thoracic Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17110649

Citation

Jackson, Abigail S., et al. "Comparison of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage." American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 3, 2007, pp. 222-7.
Jackson AS, Sandrini A, Campbell C, et al. Comparison of biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and bronchoalveolar lavage. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175(3):222-7.
Jackson, A. S., Sandrini, A., Campbell, C., Chow, S., Thomas, P. S., & Yates, D. H. (2007). Comparison of biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and bronchoalveolar lavage. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175(3), 222-7.
Jackson AS, et al. Comparison of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb 1;175(3):222-7. PubMed PMID: 17110649.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and bronchoalveolar lavage. AU - Jackson,Abigail S, AU - Sandrini,Alessandra, AU - Campbell,Charlotte, AU - Chow,Sharron, AU - Thomas,Paul S, AU - Yates,Deborah H, Y1 - 2006/11/16/ PY - 2006/11/18/pubmed PY - 2007/3/10/medline PY - 2006/11/18/entrez SP - 222 EP - 7 JF - American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine JO - Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. VL - 175 IS - 3 N2 - RATIONALE: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method of sampling the lungs, measuring several biomarkers. The exact site of origin of substances measured in EBC is unknown, as is the clinical applicability of the technique. Special techniques might be needed to measure EBC biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: To assess biomarker concentrations in clinical disease and investigate the site of origin of EBC, we compared EBC and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers in 49 patients undergoing bronchoscopy for clinical indications. MEASUREMENTS: We measured exhaled nitric oxide, 8-isoprostane, hydrogen peroxide, total nitrogen oxides, pH, total protein, and phospholipid (n = 33) and keratin (n = 15) to assess alveolar and mucinous compartments, respectively. EBC was collected over 10 min using a refrigerated condenser according to European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations, and BAL performed immediately thereafter. RESULTS: 8-Isoprostane, nitrogen oxides, and pH were significantly higher in EBC than in BAL (3.845 vs. 0.027 ng/ml, 28.4 vs. 3.8 microM, and 7.35 vs. 6.4, respectively; p < 0.001). Hydrogen peroxide showed no difference between EBC and BAL (17.5 vs. 20.6 microM, p = not significant), whereas protein was significantly higher in BAL (33.8 vs. 183.2 microg/ml, p < 0.001). Total phospholipid was also higher in EBC, but keratin showed no difference. No significant correlation was found between EBC and BAL for any of the biomarkers evaluated either before or after correction for dilution. CONCLUSIONS: In clinical disease, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress are easily measurable in EBC using standard laboratory techniques and EBC is readily obtained. However, EBC and BAL markers do not correlate. SN - 1073-449X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17110649/Comparison_of_biomarkers_in_exhaled_breath_condensate_and_bronchoalveolar_lavage_ L2 - http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1164/rccm.200601-107OC?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -