A cadaveric histological investigation of the prostate with three-dimensional reconstruction for better results in continence and erectile function after radical prostatectomy.Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2007; 10(1):77-81PC
In this study our aim is to increase the understanding of the prostate and related organs anatomy for better continence and erectile function results after urological surgery. Prostate and related organs were dissected from seven cadavers. After dissection, 165 serial sections with 300 microm thickness were derived at a 100 microm interval. The histological images were examined and imported to the computer. Three-dimensional (3D) remodeling had been performed. The findings were evaluated into three categories: macroscopic, microscopic and 3D reconstruction. Striated muscle fibers had been detected at the anterior fibromuscular stroma in histological sections. In 3D remodeling, urethra seemed to be a complete functional unit, beginning from the trigone up to the membranous urethra. The neurovascular bundles run under the pelvic fascia on both sides and go through to the bladder neck at 5 and 7 o'clock. Computer remodeling demonstrated that neurovascular structures had a close association with the bladder neck and the seminal vesicle. Computer program made it possible to rotate all 3D-reconstructed figures by 360 degrees and examine them from all possible angles. All reconstructed structures can be examined together at the same time or one by one. Surgeons must pay special attention to the continence area described as a single unit, beginning from trigone to the membranous urethra, during the surgery. Meticulous dissection of the neurovascular bundles, especially close to the seminal vesicles and bladder neck, during the radical prostatectomy is necessary. These reconstructions can be used for the educational purpose of medical students as well as the urology surgeons.