Current concepts and treatment options in eosinophilic esophagitis.Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2006; 7(11):992-6CO
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that affects both children and adults, and is different from gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The immunopathogenesis of EE involves an allergic response to environmental and food allergens, and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. EE may be associated with atopic disorders and peripheral eosinophilia, and may be familial in distribution. The most common presentation is dysphagia and food impaction in adults, with additional manifestations of epigastric pain, emesis, weight loss and failure to thrive in children. Typical endoscopic findings include ringed esophagus, linear furrows, strictures and narrow esophagus. Diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of 20 or more eosinophils per high power field in the esophagus. The available treatment options include elemental diet, avoidance of specific food allergens, topical and systemic corticosteroids, and humanized monoclonal antibodies against IL-5. This review summarizes the etiopathogenesis, clinical, endoscopic and histopathological findings in EE, and describes current available treatment options.