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Chronic ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the female rhesus macaque.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Dec; 47(12):5476-86.IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

To investigate how supplementation of the monkey's diet with high doses of lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), or a combination of the two affects the plasma levels and ocular tissue deposition of these carotenoids and their metabolites over time and to determine whether these high doses can cause ocular toxicity.

METHODS

Eighteen female rhesus monkeys were divided into groups of control (n = 3 control), L-treated (n = 5, 9.34 mg lutein/kg and 0.66 mg zeaxanthin/kg), Z-treated (n = 5, 10 mg zeaxanthin/kg), and L/Z-treated (n = 5, lutein and zeaxanthin, each 0.5 mg/kg). After 12 months of daily supplementation, one control animal, two L-treated animals, two Z-treated animals, and all the L/Z-treated animals were killed. The rest of the monkeys were killed after an additional six months without supplementation. Plasma and ocular tissue carotenoid analyses, fundus photography, and retina histopathology were performed on the animals.

RESULTS

Supplementation of monkeys with L and/or Z increased the mean plasma and ocular tissue concentrations of these carotenoids and their metabolites. The mean levels of L and Z in the retinas of the L- and Z-treated animals after 1 year increased significantly over baseline. High dose supplementation of monkeys with L or Z did not cause ocular toxicity and had no effect on biomarkers associated with kidney toxicity.

CONCLUSIONS

The mean levels of L and Z in plasma and ocular tissues of the rhesus monkeys increase with supplementation and in most cases correlate with the levels of their metabolites. Supplementation of monkeys with L or Z at high doses, or their combination does not cause ocular toxicity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021, USA. khachik@umd.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17122139

Citation

Khachik, Frederick, et al. "Chronic Ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the Female Rhesus Macaque." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 12, 2006, pp. 5476-86.
Khachik F, London E, de Moura FF, et al. Chronic ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the female rhesus macaque. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47(12):5476-86.
Khachik, F., London, E., de Moura, F. F., Johnson, M., Steidl, S., Detolla, L., Shipley, S., Sanchez, R., Chen, X. Q., Flaws, J., Lutty, G., McLeod, S., & Fowler, B. (2006). Chronic ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the female rhesus macaque. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47(12), 5476-86.
Khachik F, et al. Chronic Ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the Female Rhesus Macaque. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47(12):5476-86. PubMed PMID: 17122139.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chronic ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the female rhesus macaque. AU - Khachik,Frederick, AU - London,Edra, AU - de Moura,Fabiana F, AU - Johnson,Mary, AU - Steidl,Scott, AU - Detolla,Louis, AU - Shipley,Steven, AU - Sanchez,Rigoberto, AU - Chen,Xue-Qing, AU - Flaws,Jodi, AU - Lutty,Gerard, AU - McLeod,Scott, AU - Fowler,Bruce, PY - 2006/11/24/pubmed PY - 2007/2/3/medline PY - 2006/11/24/entrez SP - 5476 EP - 86 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VL - 47 IS - 12 N2 - PURPOSE: To investigate how supplementation of the monkey's diet with high doses of lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), or a combination of the two affects the plasma levels and ocular tissue deposition of these carotenoids and their metabolites over time and to determine whether these high doses can cause ocular toxicity. METHODS: Eighteen female rhesus monkeys were divided into groups of control (n = 3 control), L-treated (n = 5, 9.34 mg lutein/kg and 0.66 mg zeaxanthin/kg), Z-treated (n = 5, 10 mg zeaxanthin/kg), and L/Z-treated (n = 5, lutein and zeaxanthin, each 0.5 mg/kg). After 12 months of daily supplementation, one control animal, two L-treated animals, two Z-treated animals, and all the L/Z-treated animals were killed. The rest of the monkeys were killed after an additional six months without supplementation. Plasma and ocular tissue carotenoid analyses, fundus photography, and retina histopathology were performed on the animals. RESULTS: Supplementation of monkeys with L and/or Z increased the mean plasma and ocular tissue concentrations of these carotenoids and their metabolites. The mean levels of L and Z in the retinas of the L- and Z-treated animals after 1 year increased significantly over baseline. High dose supplementation of monkeys with L or Z did not cause ocular toxicity and had no effect on biomarkers associated with kidney toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The mean levels of L and Z in plasma and ocular tissues of the rhesus monkeys increase with supplementation and in most cases correlate with the levels of their metabolites. Supplementation of monkeys with L or Z at high doses, or their combination does not cause ocular toxicity. SN - 0146-0404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17122139/Chronic_ingestion_of__3R3'R6'R__lutein_and__3R3'R__zeaxanthin_in_the_female_rhesus_macaque_ L2 - http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/iovs.06-0194 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -