Formulation of tablets from the crude extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Thai local plant) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae: a preliminary study.Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006 Mar; 37(2):265-71.SA
Dried root powder of Rhinacanthus nasutus, Thong Phan Chang (Thai name) were extracted with methanol (MeOH) in a Soxhlet apparatus and made into 2 formulations of tablet containing the extract at 5% and 10% concentration. Due to the viscous and poor flow properties of the crude MeOH extract obtained, a wet granulation method was conducted in developing the tablets. Lactose was used as a filler. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K30 (15% w/w solution in alcohol) was used as the binding agent, while stearic acid (2% w/w) was used as a lubricant. Both formulas of prepared tablets had a smooth shiny surface with a round shape. Other physical properties of the tablets, such as weight variation, friability and disintegration time, met the requirements of the USP XX standard. The mosquito larvicidal activity of prepared tablets containing 5% and 10% R. nasutus extract against Aedes aegypti were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05), with 48-hour LC50 values of 13.6 and 14.2 mg/I for the 5% and 10% tablets, respectively, while their activities against Culex quinquefasciatus were similar (p > 0.05) with LC50 values of 18.7 and 17.3, respectively. The larvicidal activity levels against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were also not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). No larval mortality was observed in the two control groups: lactose solution and dechlorinated water. Toxicity to female and male fish (Poecilia reticulata) was tested with the prepared tablets. The toxicity of tablets containing 5% and 10% extracts were not significantly different from each other for the P. reticulata females with 48-hour LC50 values of 105.2 and 110.8 mg/I, respectively, and for P. reticulata males with LC50 values of 99.1 and 103.4 mg/I, respectively. Female and male P. reticulata were sensitive to the same dose of the extract. No fish died in the two control groups, with lactose solution and dechlorinated water. Acute-toxicity bioassay with fish showed that with an exposure of 48 hours the LC50 values of the tablets containing 5% and 10% were 5- to 10-fold higher than the LC50 of R. nasutus against mosquito larvae. These prepared tablets could possibly used to control mosquito vectors and be introduced into the mosquito control program.