Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults.Int J Obes (Lond) 2006; 30 Suppl 4:S11-7IJ
Childhood obesity is an important public health problem, with a rapidly increasing frequency worldwide. Identification of critical periods for the development of childhood and adolescent obesity could be very useful for targeting prevention measures. Weight status in early childhood is a poor predictor of adult adiposity status, and most obese adults were not obese as children. We first proposed to use the body mass index (BMI) charts to monitor individual BMI development. The adiposity rebound (AR) corresponds to the second rise in BMI curve that occurs between ages 5 and 7 years. It is not as direct a measure as BMI at any age, but because it involves the examination of several points during growth, and because it is identified at a time when adiposity level clearly change directions, this method provides information that can help us understand individual changes and the development of health risks. An early AR is associated with an increased risk of overweight. It is inversely associated with bone age, and reflects accelerated growth. The early AR recorded in most obese subjects and the striking difference in the mean age at AR between obese subjects (3 years) and non-obese subjects (6 years) suggest that factors have operated very early in life. The typical pattern associated with an early AR is a low BMI followed by increased BMI level after the rebound. This pattern is recorded in children of recent generations as compared to those of previous generations. This is owing to the trend of a steeper increase of height as compared to weight in the first years of life. This typical BMI pattern (low, followed by high body fatness level) is associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Low body fatness before the AR suggests that an energy deficit had occurred at an early stage of growth. It can be attributable to the high-protein, low-fat diet fed to infants at a time of high energy needs, the former triggering height velocity and the latter decreasing the energy density of the diet and then reducing energy intake. The high-fat, low-protein content of human milk may contribute to its beneficial effects on growth processes. Early (pre- and postnatal) life is a critical period during which environmental factors may programme adaptive mechanisms that will persist in adulthood. Under-nutrition in fetal life or during the first years after birth may programme a thrifty metabolism that will exert adverse effects later in life, especially if the growing child is exposed to overnutrition. These observations stress the importance of an adequate nutritional status in childhood and the necessity to provide nutritional intakes adapted to nutritional needs at various stages of growth. Because the AR reflects particular BMI patterns, it is a useful tool for the paediatrician to monitor the child's adiposity development and for researchers to investigate the different developmental patterns leading to overweight. It contributes to the understanding of chronic disease programming and suggests new approaches to obesity prevention.