Preliminary examination of short-term cellular toxicological responses of the coral Madracis mirabilis to acute Irgarol 1051 exposure.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007 Jan; 52(1):47-57.AE
Irgarol 1051 is an s-triazine herbicide formulated with Cu2O in antifouling paints. Recent studies have shown that Irgarol 1051 inhibits coral photosynthesis at environmentally relevant concentrations, consistent with its mode of action as a photosystem II inhibitor. Related toxicologic effects of this herbicide on coral cellular physiology have not yet been investigated. We used cellular diagnostics to measure changes in 18 toxicologic cellular parameters in endosymbiotic algal (dinoflagellate) and cnidarian (host) fractions of the common branching coral Madracis mirabilis associated with in vivo 8- and 24-hour exposures to a nominal initial Irgarol 1051 concentration of 10 microg L(-1). Responses measured were (1) xenobiotic response, which includes total and dinoflagellate multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), cnidarian cytochrome (CYP) P450-3 and P450-6 classes, cnidarian, and dinoflagellate glutathione-s-transferase (GST); (2) oxidative damage and response, which includes cnidarian and dinoflagellate Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), cnidarian and dinoflagellate glutathione peroxidase (GPx), cnidarian catalase, and total protein carbonyl); (3) metabolic homeostasis, which includes chloroplast and invertebrate small heat-shock proteins (sHsp), cnidarian protoporphyrinogen oxidase IX (PPO), cnidarian ferrochelatase, and cnidarian heme oxygenase; and (4) protein metabolic condition, which includes cnidarian and dinoflagellate heat shock proteins (hsp70 and hsp60), total ubiquitin, and cnidarian ubiquitin ligase. Acute responses to Irgarol 1051 exposure included significant increases in total and dinoflagellate MXR, dinoflagellate Cu/Zn SOD, dinoflagellate chloroplast sHsp, and cnidarian PPO. Irgarol 1051 exposure resulted in decreases in cnidarian GPx, cnidarian ferrochelatase, cnidarian catalase, and cnidarian CYP 450-3 and -6 classes. Related implications of Irgarol 1051 exposure to coral cellular condition are discussed.