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Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys.
Exp Eye Res. 2007 Feb; 84(2):302-13.EE

Abstract

During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that the ciliary processes and lens edge move centripetally, linearly with refraction during EW stimulated accommodation. During pharmacological stimulation, the ciliary processes move to a greater extent than the lens edge, confirming that in adolescent monkeys, lens movement limits the accommodative optical change in the eye.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Optometry, 505 J Davis Armistead Building, University of Houston, 4901 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204-2020, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17137577

Citation

Ostrin, Lisa A., and Adrian Glasser. "Edinger-Westphal and Pharmacologically Stimulated Accommodative Refractive Changes and Lens and Ciliary Process Movements in Rhesus Monkeys." Experimental Eye Research, vol. 84, no. 2, 2007, pp. 302-13.
Ostrin LA, Glasser A. Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84(2):302-13.
Ostrin, L. A., & Glasser, A. (2007). Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys. Experimental Eye Research, 84(2), 302-13.
Ostrin LA, Glasser A. Edinger-Westphal and Pharmacologically Stimulated Accommodative Refractive Changes and Lens and Ciliary Process Movements in Rhesus Monkeys. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84(2):302-13. PubMed PMID: 17137577.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys. AU - Ostrin,Lisa A, AU - Glasser,Adrian, Y1 - 2006/11/28/ PY - 2006/06/02/received PY - 2006/09/07/revised PY - 2006/10/02/accepted PY - 2006/12/2/pubmed PY - 2007/2/21/medline PY - 2006/12/2/entrez SP - 302 EP - 13 JF - Experimental eye research JO - Exp. Eye Res. VL - 84 IS - 2 N2 - During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that the ciliary processes and lens edge move centripetally, linearly with refraction during EW stimulated accommodation. During pharmacological stimulation, the ciliary processes move to a greater extent than the lens edge, confirming that in adolescent monkeys, lens movement limits the accommodative optical change in the eye. SN - 0014-4835 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17137577/Edinger_Westphal_and_pharmacologically_stimulated_accommodative_refractive_changes_and_lens_and_ciliary_process_movements_in_rhesus_monkeys_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014-4835(06)00396-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -