The effects of phase on the perception of 3D shape from texture: psychophysics and modeling.Vision Res. 2007 Feb; 47(3):411-27.VR
Two experiments are reported in which observers judged the apparent shapes of elliptical cylinders with eight different textures that were presented with scrambled and unscrambled phase spectra. The results revealed that the apparent depths of these surfaces varied linearly with the ground truth in all conditions, and that the overall magnitude of surface relief was systematically underestimated. In general, the apparent depth of a surface is significantly attenuated when the phase spectrum of its texture is randomly scrambled, though the magnitude of this effect varies for different types of texture. A new computational model of 3D shape from texture is proposed in which apparent depth is estimated from the relative density of edges in different local regions of an image, and the predictions of this model are highly correlated with the observers' judgments.