Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: verification of on-site washing.Environ Pollut. 2007 May; 147(1):112-9.EP
We developed a new, three-step soil-wash method to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields. The method comprises (1) chemically washing the field soil with a CaCl2 solution; (2) washing the treated soil with water to eliminate residual Cd and CaCl2; and (3) on-site treatment of wastewater using a portable wastewater treatment system. Cd concentrations in the treated water were below Japan's environmental quality standard (0.01 mg Cd L-1), and the removal of Cd from the exchangeable fraction was 55% and from the acid-soluble fraction 15%. While soil fertility properties were affected by the soil washing, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The washing had no affect on rice growth, and reduced the average Cd concentration in rice grains by about two-thirds compared to a control plot. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the soil-wash method in remediating Cd-contaminated paddy fields.