[The morphogenesis and spatial organization of human pineal gland concretions in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and alcoholism].Arkh Patol. 2006 Sep-Oct; 68(5):20-2.AP
X-ray microtomography using a wavelength of 0.7 A was used to detect elevated calcium concentration areas that integrate all types of human epiphyseal concretions. They consisted of both concretions and extracellular calcium, which could not be attributed to any particular tissue. There were no concretions outside of these zones. The center of concretion formation was found to be a single source that may be an individual pinealocyte. Comparison of postmortem human epiphyses in normalcy (natural aging), in chronic alcoholism, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia revealed that there were differences in both the number of concretions and their formation topology. In normalcy, the field of elevated calcium concentration was continuous whereas in patients with the study mental diseases, it was divided into separate areas. There is evidence that in mental diseases, the amount of acervulus and its density decrease, which may a marker of the development of these diseases.