Resistance to high-fat diet in the female progeny of obese mice fed a control diet during the periconceptual, gestation, and lactation periods.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 292(4):E1095-100AJ
With the worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the proportion of women that are overweight/obese and overfed during pregnancy has increased. The resulting abnormal uterine environment may have deleterious effects on fetal metabolic programming and lead to MetS in adulthood. A balanced/restricted diet and/or physical exercise often improve metabolic abnormalities in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We investigated whether reducing fat intake during the periconceptual/gestation/lactation period in mothers with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity could be used to modify fetal/neonatal MetS programming positively, thereby preventing MetS. First generation (F1) C57BL/6J female mice with HFD-induced obesity and T2D were crossed with F1 males on control diet (CD). These F1 females were switched to a CD during the periconceptual/gestation/lactation period. At weaning, both male and female second generation (F2) mice were fed a HFD. Weight, caloric intake, lipid parameters, glucose, and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Sensitivity/resistance to the HFD differed significantly between generations and sexes. A similar proportion of the F1 and F2 males (80%) developed hyperphagia, obesity, and T2D. In contrast, a significantly higher proportion of the F2 females (43%) than of the previous F1 generation (17%) were resistant (P<0.01). Despite having free access to the HFD, these female mice were no longer hyperphagic and remained lean, with normal insulin sensitivity and glycemia but mild hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance, thus displaying a "satiety phenotype." This suggests that an appropriate dietary fatty acid profile and intake during the periconceptual/gestation/lactation period helps the female offspring to cope with deleterious intrauterine conditions.