Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater: experimental comparison of 11 different sorbents.Water Res. 2007 Feb; 41(3):591-602.WR
The potential of using alumina, activated bauxsol-coated sand (ABCS), bark, bauxsol-coated sand (BCS), fly ash (FA), granulated activated carbon (GAC), granulated ferric hydroxide (GFH), iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), natural zeolite (NZ), sand, and spinel (MgAl(2)O(4)) as sorbents for removing heavy metals from stormwater are investigated in the present study. The ability of the sorbents to remove a mixture of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from synthetic stormwater samples were evaluated in batch tests at a starting pH of 6.5. The metal speciation and saturation data is obtained using the PHREEQ-C geochemical model and used to elucidate the sorption data. It is found that BCS, FA, and spinel have significantly higher affinity towards heavy metals mainly present as cationic or non-charged species (i.e. Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) compared to those present as anionic species (i.e. As and Cr). However, IOCS, NZ and sand have higher affinity towards As and Cr, while alumina has equally high affinity to all tested heavy metals. The Freundlich isotherm model is found to fit the data in many cases, but ill fitted results are also observed, especially for FA, BCS and GAC, possibly due to leaching of some metals from the sorbents (i.e. for FA) and oversaturated conditions making precipitation the dominant removal mechanism over sorption in batches with high heavy metal concentrations and pH. Calculated sorption constants (i.e. K(d)) are used to compare the overall heavy metal removal efficiency of the sorbents, which in a decreasing order are found to be: alumina, BCS, GFH, FA, GAC, spinel, ABCS, IOCS, NZ, bark, and sand. These findings are significant for future development of secondary filters for removal of dissolved heavy metals from stormwater runoff under realistic competitive conditions in terms of initial heavy metal concentrations, pH and ionic strength.