Enantiomeric monoterpene emissions from natural and damaged Scots pine in a boreal coniferous forest measured using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr A. 2007 Feb 02; 1141(1):138-44.JC
In order to develop a valuable method for accurate screening of biogenic emissions from undisturbed living plants or for plant-insect interactions, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been combined with dynamic branch enclosure cuvettes and enantioselective GC/MS. The study was conducted at Hyytiälä forest station, Finland within a boreal coniferous forest dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The SPME method was optimized for monoterpenes by testing three fibre coatings: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) and carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) and determining the optimum exposure time. The PDMS/DVB fibre was found to be most suitable and was used to characterize emissions of P. sylvestris enclosed in dynamic branch enclosure cuvettes by exposure for 1 min followed by desorption and separation on a beta-cyclodextrin column installed in the GC/MS oven. Dynamic cuvette measurements have been compared to static headspace SPME samples of the emission of detached needles from the same tree species and a portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS)-SPME for sampling the ambient air around the same trees. The method developed has allowed an accurate characterization of the gaseous emission of P. sylvestris and the identification of 17 isoprenoids comprising chiral and achiral monoterpenes. Two chemotypes of Scots pine can be differentiated through their emission of (+)-delta-3-carene. While SPME-dynamic cuvette, portable dynamic sampler and absorbent results agreed well, significant differences in enantiomeric ratios were observed in natural emissions and those of damaged leaves. Therefore, in enantioselective studies of plant-insect and/or plant-plant interactions, the two enantiomers of a given monoterpene should be treated as two separate substances.