Cytogenetic effects of a mixture of selected metals following subchronic exposure through drinking water in male rats.Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Dec; 44(12):997-1005.IJ
The current study examines the genotoxic effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese and iron) found as contaminants of water sources in different parts of India and its possible association with oxidative stress. Male rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10 and 100 times the mode concentration of each metal daily for 90 days. Another dose group at concentration equivalent to maximum permissible limit (MPL) for each metal and a reference group given ip cyclophosphamide were incorporated. The mixture at 100x level significantly increased chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei induction (2.4 folds) in bone marrow cells and reduced the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes by 25%. The mixture significantly increased sister chromatid exchange in bone marrow (1.67 and 2.3 folds) and spleen (1.57 and 1.98 folds) cells with both 10x and 100x doses. Cyclophosphamide was more potent than the mixture in causing cytogenetic damage in these parameters. In rat spleen, the mixture at 10x and 100x doses caused dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation (25.95 and 52.71%) and decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (20.36 and 40.62%), catalase (18.24 and 35.50%), glutathione peroxidase (22.33 and 36.12%) and glutathione reductase (19.22 and 31.35%) and in the level of GSH (19.76 and 35.15%). The results suggest that the mixture induced genotoxicity in rat bone marrow and spleen cells at concentrations relatively higher than that found in groundwater sources and the genotoxic effect could relate to induction of oxidative stress. However, observations with lower doses indicate that additive or synergistic interactions following exposure to metal components at MPL levels or at mode concentrations of contemporary groundwater levels in India may not result in clastogenicity in male rats.