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Afternoon harvest increases readily fermentable carbohydrate concentration and voluntary intake of gamagrass and switchgrass baleage by beef steers.
J Anim Sci 2007; 85(1):276-84JA

Abstract

Our objective was to determine if harvest in the morning (AM, 0600) vs. the afternoon (PM, 1800) affects composition and voluntary DMI of gamagrass (GG) or switchgrass (SG) stored as baleage. Iuka GG (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) and Alamo SG (Panicum virgatum L.) were cut with a mower-conditioner, immediately round-baled, wrapped in plastic, and stored as baleage. Beef steers (255 +/- 7 kg of BW) were assigned (5 steers/treatment) to GG/AM, GG/PM, SG/AM, or SG/PM. Ad libitum intake was measured for 21 d (7-d adjustment and 14-d intake estimate) followed by 7-d adjustment and 5-d digestion and N balance study. Chewing behavior was recorded during the balance study. Compared with AM, PM had more (P < 0.01) starch (9.3 vs. 4.7 g/kg of DM), total nonstructural carbohydrate (30.4 vs. 19.0 g/kg of DM), and monosaccharides (17.1 vs. 11.2 g/kg of DM). Compared with AM, PM had less (P = 0.05) acetate (13.0 vs. 18.6 g/kg of DM) and propionate (0.29 vs. 0.82 g/kg of DM) and tended (P < 0.13) to have less lactate (2.9 vs. 3.5 g/kg of DM) and butyrate (3.9 vs. 5.1 g/kg of DM). Compared with SG, GG had more (P = 0.01) DM (324 vs. 242 g/kg of baleage), CP (114 vs. 97 g/kg of DM), lactate (4.8 vs. 1.6 g/kg of DM), starch (9.4 vs. 4.7 g/kg of DM), total nonstructural carbohydrate (34.2 vs. 15.2 g/kg of DM), and monosaccharides (20.8 vs. 7.4 g/kg of DM). However, GG had a lower (P = 0.01) pH (5.32 vs.5.79) and less (P < 0.01) ethanol (18.7 vs. 27.3 g/kg of DM), acetate (12.3 vs. 19.2 g/kg of DM), propionate (0.00 vs. 1.11 g/kg of DM), and butyrate (0.6 vs. 8.4 g/kg of DM). Daily DMI (2.16 vs. 1.83% of BW) and digestible DMI (1.15 vs. 0.95% of BW) were greater (P = 0.03) for PM than AM. Plasma urea N concentrations at the end of the ad libitum intake phase were greater (P = 0.01) for AM (3.91 mM) than for PM (2.31 mM) and greater (P = 0.07) for GG (3.51 mM) than for SG (2.71 mM). Steers fed PM spent more time eating (P = 0.04) and less time resting (P = 0.01) during meals than steers fed AM. Apparent digestibility of DM and fiber components was not affected (P < 0.18) by treatment. Apparent digestibility and retention of N decreased from PM to AM for SG, but increased for GG (P = 0.05). Retention of N as a percentage of N intake or N digested decreased more from PM to AM for SG than for GG (P < 0.05). We conclude that increased nonstructural carbohydrate content of the PM harvest of these grasses stored as baleage caused increased voluntary intake and improved use of dietary N by beef steers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science and ARS-USDA, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7621, USA. Gerald_Huntington@ncsu.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17179566

Citation

Huntington, G B., and J C. Burns. "Afternoon Harvest Increases Readily Fermentable Carbohydrate Concentration and Voluntary Intake of Gamagrass and Switchgrass Baleage By Beef Steers." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 85, no. 1, 2007, pp. 276-84.
Huntington GB, Burns JC. Afternoon harvest increases readily fermentable carbohydrate concentration and voluntary intake of gamagrass and switchgrass baleage by beef steers. J Anim Sci. 2007;85(1):276-84.
Huntington, G. B., & Burns, J. C. (2007). Afternoon harvest increases readily fermentable carbohydrate concentration and voluntary intake of gamagrass and switchgrass baleage by beef steers. Journal of Animal Science, 85(1), pp. 276-84.
Huntington GB, Burns JC. Afternoon Harvest Increases Readily Fermentable Carbohydrate Concentration and Voluntary Intake of Gamagrass and Switchgrass Baleage By Beef Steers. J Anim Sci. 2007;85(1):276-84. PubMed PMID: 17179566.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Afternoon harvest increases readily fermentable carbohydrate concentration and voluntary intake of gamagrass and switchgrass baleage by beef steers. AU - Huntington,G B, AU - Burns,J C, PY - 2006/12/21/pubmed PY - 2007/1/26/medline PY - 2006/12/21/entrez SP - 276 EP - 84 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J. Anim. Sci. VL - 85 IS - 1 N2 - Our objective was to determine if harvest in the morning (AM, 0600) vs. the afternoon (PM, 1800) affects composition and voluntary DMI of gamagrass (GG) or switchgrass (SG) stored as baleage. Iuka GG (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) and Alamo SG (Panicum virgatum L.) were cut with a mower-conditioner, immediately round-baled, wrapped in plastic, and stored as baleage. Beef steers (255 +/- 7 kg of BW) were assigned (5 steers/treatment) to GG/AM, GG/PM, SG/AM, or SG/PM. Ad libitum intake was measured for 21 d (7-d adjustment and 14-d intake estimate) followed by 7-d adjustment and 5-d digestion and N balance study. Chewing behavior was recorded during the balance study. Compared with AM, PM had more (P < 0.01) starch (9.3 vs. 4.7 g/kg of DM), total nonstructural carbohydrate (30.4 vs. 19.0 g/kg of DM), and monosaccharides (17.1 vs. 11.2 g/kg of DM). Compared with AM, PM had less (P = 0.05) acetate (13.0 vs. 18.6 g/kg of DM) and propionate (0.29 vs. 0.82 g/kg of DM) and tended (P < 0.13) to have less lactate (2.9 vs. 3.5 g/kg of DM) and butyrate (3.9 vs. 5.1 g/kg of DM). Compared with SG, GG had more (P = 0.01) DM (324 vs. 242 g/kg of baleage), CP (114 vs. 97 g/kg of DM), lactate (4.8 vs. 1.6 g/kg of DM), starch (9.4 vs. 4.7 g/kg of DM), total nonstructural carbohydrate (34.2 vs. 15.2 g/kg of DM), and monosaccharides (20.8 vs. 7.4 g/kg of DM). However, GG had a lower (P = 0.01) pH (5.32 vs.5.79) and less (P < 0.01) ethanol (18.7 vs. 27.3 g/kg of DM), acetate (12.3 vs. 19.2 g/kg of DM), propionate (0.00 vs. 1.11 g/kg of DM), and butyrate (0.6 vs. 8.4 g/kg of DM). Daily DMI (2.16 vs. 1.83% of BW) and digestible DMI (1.15 vs. 0.95% of BW) were greater (P = 0.03) for PM than AM. Plasma urea N concentrations at the end of the ad libitum intake phase were greater (P = 0.01) for AM (3.91 mM) than for PM (2.31 mM) and greater (P = 0.07) for GG (3.51 mM) than for SG (2.71 mM). Steers fed PM spent more time eating (P = 0.04) and less time resting (P = 0.01) during meals than steers fed AM. Apparent digestibility of DM and fiber components was not affected (P < 0.18) by treatment. Apparent digestibility and retention of N decreased from PM to AM for SG, but increased for GG (P = 0.05). Retention of N as a percentage of N intake or N digested decreased more from PM to AM for SG than for GG (P < 0.05). We conclude that increased nonstructural carbohydrate content of the PM harvest of these grasses stored as baleage caused increased voluntary intake and improved use of dietary N by beef steers. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17179566/Afternoon_harvest_increases_readily_fermentable_carbohydrate_concentration_and_voluntary_intake_of_gamagrass_and_switchgrass_baleage_by_beef_steers_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2006-370 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -