[Vegetarian nutrition: preventive potential and possible risks. Part 2: animal foods and recommendations].Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006; 118(23-24):728-37WK
As shown in the first part of this article, consuming high amounts of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts can lower the risk for several chronic diseases. However, the relevance of animal foods consumed within a vegetarian diet is less well-known.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We followed a nutritive and a metabolic-epidemiological approach to obtain dietary recommendations. A MEDLINE-research was performed for all animal food groups relevant with a vegetarian diet (key words: "eggs", "milk", "dietary pattern" "vegetarian diet", "cancer", "cardiovascular disease", "diabetes mellitus", "osteoporosis", "vitamin D", "vitamin B(12)", "iron", "iodine"). All relevant food groups were characterized regarding their nutrient content and rated with respect to the available metabolic-epidemiological evidence.
Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAO, colorectal cancer risk reduction by a high intake of milk and milk products is assessed as probable, while a higher risk of prostate and ovarial carcinomas is also probable. The evidence of a risk-increasing effect of eggs relating to cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and breast cancer is assessed as probable. As the data of prospective cohort studies suggest, a prudent diet pattern characterized high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. In contrast, there is no overall association between prudent diet pattern and risk of breast cancer or colorectal cancer. The critical key nutrients for vegetarians are vitamin D and B12, iodine and iron.
For the first time evidence based dietary recommendations were provided for persons on a vegetarian diet in the D-A-CH-region.