Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and diffensive gastric mucosal factors in rats.Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Jul-Sep; 50(3):241-9.IJ
Standardized aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (AIE) has been reported to show both ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in normal as well as in diabetic rats. To study the mechanism of its ulcer protective/healing actions, effects of AIE (500 mg/ kg) was studied on various parameters of offensive acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligation, pentagastrin (PENTA, 5 microg/kg/hr)-stimulated acid secretion and gastric mucosal proton pump activity and defensive mucin secretion including life span of gastric mucosal cells in rats. AIE was found to inhibit acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligated rats. Continuous infusion of PENTA significantly increased the acid secretion after 30 to 180 min or in the total 3 hr acid secretion in rat stomach perfusate while, AIE pretreatment significantly decreased them. AIE inhibited the rat gastric mucosal proton pump activity and the effect was comparable with that of omeprazole (OMZ). Further, AIE did not show any effect on mucin secretion though it enhanced life span of mucosal cells as evidenced by a decrease in cell shedding in the gastric juice. Thus, our present data suggest that the ulcer protective activity of AIE may be due to its anti-secretary and proton pump inhibitory activity rather than on defensive mucin secretion. Further, acute as well as sub acute toxicity studies have indicated no mortality with 2.5 g/kg dose of AIE in mice and no significant alterations in body or tissues weight, food and water intake, haematological profile and various liver and kidney function tests in rats when treated for 28 days with 1 g/kg dose of AIE.