Synthesis of indenes by the transition metal-mediated carboannulation of alkynes.J Org Chem. 2007 Jan 05; 72(1):251-62.JO
The synthesis of highly substituted indenes has been achieved by three different transition metal-mediated methods. The first method involves the palladium-catalyzed carboannulation of internal alkynes. The second method utilizes a two-step approach, which involves first the palladium/copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal alkynes with appropriately functionalized aryl halides, followed by copper-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization. The third method involves intermolecular palladium-catalyzed arylation of the arylalkynes formed in the first step of the second method.