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Toxins of cyanobacteria.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jan; 51(1):7-60.MN

Abstract

Blue-green algae are found in lakes, ponds, rivers and brackish waters throughout the world. In case of excessive growth such as bloom formation, these bacteria can produce inherent toxins in quantities causing toxicity in mammals, including humans. These cyanotoxins include cyclic peptides and alkaloids. Among the cyclic peptides are the microcystins and the nodularins. The alkaloids include anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(S), cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxins (STXs), aplysiatoxins and lyngbyatoxin. Both biological and chemical methods are used to determine cyanotoxins. Bioassays and biochemical assays are nonspecific, so they can only be used as screening methods. HPLC has some good prospects. For the subsequent detection of these toxins different detectors may be used, ranging from simple UV-spectrometry via fluorescence detection to various types of MS. The main problem in the determination of cyanobacterial toxins is the lack of reference materials of all relevant toxins. In general, toxicity data on cyanotoxins are rather scarce. A majority of toxicity data are known to be of microcystin-LR. For nodularins, data from a few animal studies are available. For the alkaloids, limited toxicity data exist for anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin and STX. Risk assessment for acute exposure could be relevant for some types of exposure. Nevertheless, no acute reference doses have formally been derived thus far. For STX(s), many countries have established tolerance levels in bivalves, but these limits were set in view of STX(s) as biotoxins, accumulating in marine shellfish. Official regulations for other cyanotoxins have not been established, although some (provisional) guideline values have been derived for microcystins in drinking water by WHO and several countries.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17195276

Citation

van Apeldoorn, Marian E., et al. "Toxins of Cyanobacteria." Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 51, no. 1, 2007, pp. 7-60.
van Apeldoorn ME, van Egmond HP, Speijers GJ, et al. Toxins of cyanobacteria. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51(1):7-60.
van Apeldoorn, M. E., van Egmond, H. P., Speijers, G. J., & Bakker, G. J. (2007). Toxins of cyanobacteria. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51(1), 7-60.
van Apeldoorn ME, et al. Toxins of Cyanobacteria. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51(1):7-60. PubMed PMID: 17195276.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxins of cyanobacteria. AU - van Apeldoorn,Marian E, AU - van Egmond,Hans P, AU - Speijers,Gerrit J A, AU - Bakker,Guido J I, PY - 2006/12/30/pubmed PY - 2007/5/12/medline PY - 2006/12/30/entrez SP - 7 EP - 60 JF - Molecular nutrition & food research JO - Mol Nutr Food Res VL - 51 IS - 1 N2 - Blue-green algae are found in lakes, ponds, rivers and brackish waters throughout the world. In case of excessive growth such as bloom formation, these bacteria can produce inherent toxins in quantities causing toxicity in mammals, including humans. These cyanotoxins include cyclic peptides and alkaloids. Among the cyclic peptides are the microcystins and the nodularins. The alkaloids include anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(S), cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxins (STXs), aplysiatoxins and lyngbyatoxin. Both biological and chemical methods are used to determine cyanotoxins. Bioassays and biochemical assays are nonspecific, so they can only be used as screening methods. HPLC has some good prospects. For the subsequent detection of these toxins different detectors may be used, ranging from simple UV-spectrometry via fluorescence detection to various types of MS. The main problem in the determination of cyanobacterial toxins is the lack of reference materials of all relevant toxins. In general, toxicity data on cyanotoxins are rather scarce. A majority of toxicity data are known to be of microcystin-LR. For nodularins, data from a few animal studies are available. For the alkaloids, limited toxicity data exist for anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin and STX. Risk assessment for acute exposure could be relevant for some types of exposure. Nevertheless, no acute reference doses have formally been derived thus far. For STX(s), many countries have established tolerance levels in bivalves, but these limits were set in view of STX(s) as biotoxins, accumulating in marine shellfish. Official regulations for other cyanotoxins have not been established, although some (provisional) guideline values have been derived for microcystins in drinking water by WHO and several countries. SN - 1613-4125 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17195276/Toxins_of_cyanobacteria_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200600185 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -