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Temporal changes in sebum excretion and propionibacterial colonization in preadolescent children with and without acne.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

It is generally accepted that the onset of sebum secretion occurs before puberty in boys and girls as a result of increasing androgen output during the adrenarche. Propionibacteria are part of the commensal skin flora and, in adults, are found in highest numbers in sebum-rich areas of skin such as the face and upper trunk. Previous studies investigating the association between sebum output and propionibacterial population densities have been cross-sectional and have been carried out mainly in adults.

OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the onset of sebum secretion and expansion of the propionibacterial flora in a population of early adolescent children aged between 5.5 and 12 years, and to evaluate the temporal relation between the two factors longitudinally. In addition, the study aimed to evaluate the change with age in sebaceous gland activity and propionibacterial colonization on the skin and in the nares between children who developed acne and those who did not.

METHODS

Biannual examinations of volunteers included age, pubertal (Tanner) stage, weight and height, lesion counting on the face, propionibacterial colonization on the skin surface and in the nares and sebum secretion. A longitudinal analysis based on all observations of each subject throughout the study was applied to examine the change of sebaceous gland activity and propionibacterial colonization with age and pubertal stage. A generalized estimating equation was used with a 0.05 level of significance.

RESULTS

The commencement of sebum production was asynchronous, with only a small number of follicles initially starting to secrete sebum onto the skin surface. The number of secreting follicles and the area of sebum increased with age and pubertal stage (P < 0.0001, P < 0.05, respectively). Numbers of propionibacteria on the skin tended to increase after the age of 9 years, but not significantly so. In contrast, numbers of propionibacteria in the nares increased significantly with age (P < 0.0001) but not with pubertal maturation. Children who developed acne had higher sebum output and propionibacterial densities with increasing age than children who did not develop acne. This effect was significant for the increase of total sebum area with age in pubertal children (P = 0.0023), the increase in number of secreting follicles with age (P = 0.020) in prepubertal children, and the increase in propionibacteria densities in the nares with age (P = 0.0005) in pubertal children. Sebaceous gland activity and propionibacterial numbers on the skin surface remained unchanged with increasing age in children who did not develop acne. Propionibacterial population densities in the nares increased with age regardless of the development of acne.

CONCLUSIONS

Onset of sebum secretion and consequently expansion of the propionibacterial skin flora occur earlier in children who develop acne than in children of the same age and pubertal status who do not develop acne. These observations suggest that postponing the onset of sebum production or the expansion of the propionibacterial skin flora until after puberty may represent ways of preventing the disease or minimizing its severity. Determinants of propionibacterial colonization on the skin and in the nares may be different.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    The Skin Research Centre, Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, U.K.

    , , ,

    Source

    The British journal of dermatology 156:1 2007 Jan pg 22-31

    MeSH

    Acne Vulgaris
    Age Factors
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Propionibacterium acnes
    Sebaceous Glands
    Sebum

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17199562

    Citation

    Mourelatos, K, et al. "Temporal Changes in Sebum Excretion and Propionibacterial Colonization in Preadolescent Children With and Without Acne." The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 156, no. 1, 2007, pp. 22-31.
    Mourelatos K, Eady EA, Cunliffe WJ, et al. Temporal changes in sebum excretion and propionibacterial colonization in preadolescent children with and without acne. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156(1):22-31.
    Mourelatos, K., Eady, E. A., Cunliffe, W. J., Clark, S. M., & Cove, J. H. (2007). Temporal changes in sebum excretion and propionibacterial colonization in preadolescent children with and without acne. The British Journal of Dermatology, 156(1), pp. 22-31.
    Mourelatos K, et al. Temporal Changes in Sebum Excretion and Propionibacterial Colonization in Preadolescent Children With and Without Acne. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156(1):22-31. PubMed PMID: 17199562.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Temporal changes in sebum excretion and propionibacterial colonization in preadolescent children with and without acne. AU - Mourelatos,K, AU - Eady,E A, AU - Cunliffe,W J, AU - Clark,S M, AU - Cove,J H, PY - 2007/1/4/pubmed PY - 2007/5/18/medline PY - 2007/1/4/entrez SP - 22 EP - 31 JF - The British journal of dermatology JO - Br. J. Dermatol. VL - 156 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that the onset of sebum secretion occurs before puberty in boys and girls as a result of increasing androgen output during the adrenarche. Propionibacteria are part of the commensal skin flora and, in adults, are found in highest numbers in sebum-rich areas of skin such as the face and upper trunk. Previous studies investigating the association between sebum output and propionibacterial population densities have been cross-sectional and have been carried out mainly in adults. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the onset of sebum secretion and expansion of the propionibacterial flora in a population of early adolescent children aged between 5.5 and 12 years, and to evaluate the temporal relation between the two factors longitudinally. In addition, the study aimed to evaluate the change with age in sebaceous gland activity and propionibacterial colonization on the skin and in the nares between children who developed acne and those who did not. METHODS: Biannual examinations of volunteers included age, pubertal (Tanner) stage, weight and height, lesion counting on the face, propionibacterial colonization on the skin surface and in the nares and sebum secretion. A longitudinal analysis based on all observations of each subject throughout the study was applied to examine the change of sebaceous gland activity and propionibacterial colonization with age and pubertal stage. A generalized estimating equation was used with a 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The commencement of sebum production was asynchronous, with only a small number of follicles initially starting to secrete sebum onto the skin surface. The number of secreting follicles and the area of sebum increased with age and pubertal stage (P < 0.0001, P < 0.05, respectively). Numbers of propionibacteria on the skin tended to increase after the age of 9 years, but not significantly so. In contrast, numbers of propionibacteria in the nares increased significantly with age (P < 0.0001) but not with pubertal maturation. Children who developed acne had higher sebum output and propionibacterial densities with increasing age than children who did not develop acne. This effect was significant for the increase of total sebum area with age in pubertal children (P = 0.0023), the increase in number of secreting follicles with age (P = 0.020) in prepubertal children, and the increase in propionibacteria densities in the nares with age (P = 0.0005) in pubertal children. Sebaceous gland activity and propionibacterial numbers on the skin surface remained unchanged with increasing age in children who did not develop acne. Propionibacterial population densities in the nares increased with age regardless of the development of acne. CONCLUSIONS: Onset of sebum secretion and consequently expansion of the propionibacterial skin flora occur earlier in children who develop acne than in children of the same age and pubertal status who do not develop acne. These observations suggest that postponing the onset of sebum production or the expansion of the propionibacterial skin flora until after puberty may represent ways of preventing the disease or minimizing its severity. Determinants of propionibacterial colonization on the skin and in the nares may be different. SN - 0007-0963 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17199562/Temporal_changes_in_sebum_excretion_and_propionibacterial_colonization_in_preadolescent_children_with_and_without_acne_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07517.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -